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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2018-06-29 22:18:17 UTC
Update Date2020-05-11 20:42:53 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0062200
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB62200
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTheobromine
DescriptionTheobrominee, also known as theobromine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. Theobrominee exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Theobrominee exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Theobrominee participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, Theobrominee and formaldehyde can be biosynthesized from caffeine through the action of the enzymes cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 2E1. In addition, Theobrominee can be converted into 3,7-dimethyluric acid through the action of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. In cattle, theobrominee is involved in the metabolic pathway called the caffeine metabolism pathway.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3,7-Dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
3,7-Dimethylpurine-2,6-dioneChEBI
3,7-DimethylxanthineChEBI
TheobrominChEBI
TeobrominHMDB
2,6-Dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-purineHMDB
3,7-Dimethyl-xanthineHMDB
DiurobromineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Molecular Weight180.164
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.06472552
IUPAC Name3,7-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nametheobromine
CAS Registry Number83-67-0
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(O)=NC(=O)N2C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)9-7(13)11(5)2/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,12,13)
InChI KeyYAPQBXQYLJRXSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.78ALOGPS
logP-0.77ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.28ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity44.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.85 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0002825
DrugBank IDDB01412
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000455
KNApSAcK IDC00001509
Chemspider ID5236
KEGG Compound IDC07480
BioCyc ID3-7-DIMETHYLXANTHINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTheobromine
METLIN ID1456
PubChem Compound5429
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28946
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available