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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:05 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 20:29:50 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000056
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00056
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBeta-Alanine
Descriptionbeta-Alanine, also known as 3-aminopropanoate or bala, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom. beta-Alanine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). beta-Alanine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. beta-Alanine is a potentially toxic compound. beta-Alanine, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as crohn's disease, alzheimer's disease, methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, and frontotemporal dementia; beta-alanine has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
3-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
BAlaChEBI
beta-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
H-beta-Ala-OHChEBI
Omega-aminopropionic acidChEBI
3-AminopropanoateKegg
AbufeneKegg
3-AminopropionateGenerator
b-AminopropionateGenerator
b-Aminopropionic acidGenerator
beta-AminopropionateGenerator
Β-aminopropionateGenerator
Β-aminopropionic acidGenerator
H-b-Ala-OHGenerator
H-Β-ala-OHGenerator
Omega-aminopropionateGenerator
b-AlanineGenerator
Β-alanineGenerator
2-CarboxyethylamineHMDB
3-Amino-propanoateHMDB
3-Amino-propanoic acidHMDB
b-AminopropanoateHMDB
b-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
beta AlanineHMDB
beta-AminopropanoateHMDB
beta-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
3 Aminopropionic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name3-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ alanine
CAS Registry Number107-95-9
SMILES
NCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c4-2-1-3(5)6/h1-2,4H2,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyUCMIRNVEIXFBKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point200 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility545.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05TSAI,RS ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-007k-1920000000-9389ee061bd6e9ae3b22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fdt-2930000000-5799fddb7fac04d22372View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-006t-1940000000-49f1b7c80f35cbcf102eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-2920000000-c701f2e5652fa4f35e50View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-8930000000-c4f8138d4cb7f1ea851aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-014i-2900000000-c54f1d5878600393dca7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-1900000000-2f55a09bba074034dee7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00ds-2940000000-4192453eaba2cbecf800View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-1960000000-665868f9adaa275dbdb3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-007k-1920000000-9389ee061bd6e9ae3b22View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fdt-2930000000-5799fddb7fac04d22372View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-1940000000-49f1b7c80f35cbcf102eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-2920000000-c701f2e5652fa4f35e50View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-8930000000-c4f8138d4cb7f1ea851aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ds-2940000000-4192453eaba2cbecf800View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-2900000000-c54f1d5878600393dca7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-2f55a09bba074034dee7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0900000000-efc0822e26bcf842e232View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0072-2920000000-284cff207c712b6698d6View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-ad7f96b2c6a1f5183794View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-9700000000-d73baf312b8af27575b3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-c30cc77c93e4ec09265aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000j-9000000000-540a52fcec629c0a0647View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000b-9000000000-531b17f8e16896225186View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-61740a52186a51b8543cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-1bdf967935160468d550View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-0ba5264cfc5ec108718bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-c6a2c78d322328400127View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-d5f47100c42e7777802eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-e8f43be75c153e5be3ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-1004-9000100000-ccb09493216d97165c8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00l7-9230000000-644b1dbe52c5f07e285aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ff4a990aa1fb1b7cc33dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-61740a52186a51b8543cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-3ac278f3f0cfc3d50ebfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-6d6e140cf4317b214296View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05dl-9000000000-ead5967d7f21631b6fc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-91312dd333b1413fa045View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-007c-9000000000-caef7f2a75815a584747View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fdo-9000000000-5642be49ea98b530ff09View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-be815b0a56f225da04d8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified8 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.8-9.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified750 +/- 137 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified149 +/- 57 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified84-155 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified3-33 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified72 +/- 38 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified122 +/- 37 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified48 +/- 13 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000056
DrugBank IDDB03107
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB002253
KNApSAcK IDC00001333
Chemspider ID234
KEGG Compound IDC00099
BioCyc IDB-ALANINE
BiGG ID33848
Wikipedia LinkBeta-Alanine
METLIN ID5119
PubChem Compound239
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16958
References
Synthesis ReferenceBuc, Saul R.; Ford, Jared H.; Wise, E. C. Improved synthesis of b-alanine. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1945), 67 92-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BGI0
Molecular weight:
56731.0
Reactions
Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a variety of dipeptides including L-carnosine but has a strong preference for Cys-Gly. Catalyzes the production of N-lactoyl-amino acids from lactate and amino acids by reverse proteolysis.
Gene Name:
CNDP2
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC84
Molecular weight:
52655.0
Reactions
Anserine + Water → Beta-Alanine + 3-Methylhistidinedetails
Carnosine + Water → Beta-Alanine + L-Histidinedetails
Anserine + Water → Beta-Alanine + 1-Methylhistidinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCA1
Molecular weight:
66784.0
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the amide bond in N-(4-oxoglutarate)-L-cysteinylglycine (deaminated glutathione), a metabolite repair reaction to dispose of the harmful deaminated glutathione. Plays a role in cell growth and apoptosis. Has tumor suppressor properties that enhances the apoptotic responsiveness in cancer cells. It is also a negative regulator of primary T-cells.
Gene Name:
NIT1
Uniprot ID:
Q32LH4
Molecular weight:
36240.0
Reactions
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Ammonia + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A5PJL9
Molecular weight:
54461.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Carnosinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + 1-Methylhistidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Anserinedetails