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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:05 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 20:29:50 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000056
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00056
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBeta-Alanine
Descriptionbeta-Alanine, also known as 3-aminopropanoate or bala, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom. beta-Alanine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). beta-Alanine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. beta-Alanine is a potentially toxic compound. beta-Alanine, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as crohn's disease, alzheimer's disease, methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, and frontotemporal dementia; beta-alanine has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
3-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
BAlaChEBI
beta-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
H-beta-Ala-OHChEBI
Omega-aminopropionic acidChEBI
3-AminopropanoateKegg
AbufeneKegg
3-AminopropionateGenerator
b-AminopropionateGenerator
b-Aminopropionic acidGenerator
beta-AminopropionateGenerator
Β-aminopropionateGenerator
Β-aminopropionic acidGenerator
H-b-Ala-OHGenerator
H-Β-ala-OHGenerator
Omega-aminopropionateGenerator
b-AlanineGenerator
Β-alanineGenerator
2-CarboxyethylamineHMDB
3-Amino-propanoateHMDB
3-Amino-propanoic acidHMDB
b-AminopropanoateHMDB
b-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
beta AlanineHMDB
beta-AminopropanoateHMDB
beta-Aminopropanoic acidHMDB
3 Aminopropionic acidHMDB
β-Aminopropanoic acidPhytoBank
omega-Aminopropanoic acidPhytoBank
ω-Aminopropanoic acidPhytoBank
ω-Aminopropionic acidPhytoBank
beta-AlaninePhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name3-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ alanine
CAS Registry Number107-95-9
SMILES
NCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c4-2-1-3(5)6/h1-2,4H2,(H,5,6)
InChI KeyUCMIRNVEIXFBKS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point200 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility545.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05TSAI,RS ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified8 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.8-9.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified750 +/- 137 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified149 +/- 57 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified84-155 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified3-33 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified72 +/- 38 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified122 +/- 37 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified48 +/- 13 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000056
DrugBank IDDB03107
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB002253
KNApSAcK IDC00001333
Chemspider ID234
KEGG Compound IDC00099
BioCyc IDB-ALANINE
BiGG ID33848
Wikipedia LinkBeta-Alanine
METLIN ID5119
PubChem Compound239
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16958
References
Synthesis ReferenceBuc, Saul R.; Ford, Jared H.; Wise, E. C. Improved synthesis of b-alanine. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1945), 67 92-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BGI0
Molecular weight:
56731.0
Reactions
Beta-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a variety of dipeptides including L-carnosine but has a strong preference for Cys-Gly. Catalyzes the production of N-lactoyl-amino acids from lactate and amino acids by reverse proteolysis.
Gene Name:
CNDP2
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC84
Molecular weight:
52655.0
Reactions
Anserine + Water → Beta-Alanine + 3-Methylhistidinedetails
Carnosine + Water → Beta-Alanine + L-Histidinedetails
Anserine + Water → Beta-Alanine + 1-Methylhistidinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Gene Name:
GAD1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCA1
Molecular weight:
66784.0
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the amide bond in N-(4-oxoglutarate)-L-cysteinylglycine (deaminated glutathione), a metabolite repair reaction to dispose of the harmful deaminated glutathione. Plays a role in cell growth and apoptosis. Has tumor suppressor properties that enhances the apoptotic responsiveness in cancer cells. It is also a negative regulator of primary T-cells.
Gene Name:
NIT1
Uniprot ID:
Q32LH4
Molecular weight:
36240.0
Reactions
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Ammonia + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A5PJL9
Molecular weight:
54461.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Carnosinedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + 1-Methylhistidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Anserinedetails