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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:48:16 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 15:46:09 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0001860
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB01860
Metabolite Identification
Common NameParaxanthine
DescriptionParaxanthine, also known as Paraxanthine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. Paraxanthine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Paraxanthine exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Paraxanthine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, Paraxanthine and formaldehyde can be biosynthesized from caffeine through its interaction with the enzyme cytochrome P450 1A2. In addition, Paraxanthine and acetyl-CoA can be converted into 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil; which is mediated by the enzyme arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2. In cattle, paraxanthine is involved in the metabolic pathway called the caffeine metabolism pathway.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3,7-Dihydro-1,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
p-XanthineChEBI
1,7-Dimethyl-xanthineHMDB
1,7-DimethylxanthineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Molecular Weight180.164
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.06472552
IUPAC Name1,7-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nameparaxanthine
CAS Registry Number611-59-6
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)11(2)7(13)9-5/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,13)
InChI KeyQUNWUDVFRNGTCO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point351 - 352 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.56ALOGPS
logP0.24ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.87ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity46.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-2980000000-6ee5dc3100885f205536View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000i-2980000000-6ee5dc3100885f205536View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0uka-3900000000-d979badf45de391835d4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0900000000-2d1aa5f80618f452686cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-3326bcbee23b63dcc230View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-9824aef9dc2f13c24bccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00e9-1900000000-9d0dde13bb1ce13e2644View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00fr-0900000000-1aa733a1b7e41b994d8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-190ff3302e9f5a37a72fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-00fr-0900000000-1aa733a1b7e41b994d8dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0229-0900000000-729a2bed81ba15260ffaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0229-0900000000-18d0a9c63a1dfb683c9bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c52421f0ba1f46241853View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-0bd6ed3d764e5a9b374eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00e9-1900000000-9d0dde13bb1ce13e2644View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0w29-0940000000-127f99d8e7324e01eb66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-0ik9-0930000000-fe234438cbe3be0b30f6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-190ff3302e9f5a37a72fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d6040ea84fe19d8c5cc6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-5e7c398698bb5c16617dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-522eaddc21ef92e70e62View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0005-9200000000-d10a1141c0e21f56ec00View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-bc2d3cb520a4fcb81529View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-e2e2992ce9b1265af790View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05am-9300000000-e1aefedceb8692ffe91fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0001860
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022714
KNApSAcK IDC00039930
Chemspider ID4525
KEGG Compound IDC13747
BioCyc ID1-7-DIMETHYLXANTHINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkParaxanthine
METLIN ID1457
PubChem Compound4687
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID25858
References
Synthesis ReferenceMueller, Christa E.; Deters, Dirk; Dominik, Andreas; Pawlowski, Maciej. Synthesis of paraxanthine and isoparaxanthine analogs (1,7- and 1,9-substituted xanthine derivatives). Synthesis (1998), (10), 1428-1436.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Participates in the detoxification of a plethora of hydrazine and arylamine drugs.
Gene Name:
NAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q1JPA6
Molecular weight:
34199.0
Reactions
Paraxanthine + Acetyl-CoA → 5-Acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil + Coenzyme Adetails