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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:18:45 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:28:53 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000034
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00034
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAdenine
DescriptionAdenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-AminopurineChEBI
AChEBI
AdeChEBI
AdeninChEBI
LeuconKegg
1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
1H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
1H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
3,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
6-Amino-1H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-3H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-7H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-9H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-purineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-yl-aminHMDB
9H-Purin-6-ylamineHMDB
9H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
AdeninimineHMDB
Vitamin b4HMDB
Vitamin b 4HMDB
4, Vitamin bHMDB
b 4, VitaminHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5
Average Molecular Weight135.1267
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight135.054495185
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number73-24-5
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H5N5/c6-4-3-5(9-1-7-3)10-2-8-4/h1-2H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10)
InChI KeyGFFGJBXGBJISGV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent6-aminopurines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosome
  • Nucleus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point360 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.03 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.09HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosome
  • Nucleus
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Liver
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000034
DrugBank IDDB00173
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB012266
KNApSAcK IDC00001490
Chemspider ID185
KEGG Compound IDC00147
BioCyc IDADENINE
BiGG ID34039
Wikipedia LinkAdenine
METLIN ID85
PubChem Compound190
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16708
References
Synthesis ReferenceBaddiley, J.; Lythgoe, B.; Todd, A. R. Synthesis of purine nucleosides. II. A new and convenient synthesis of adenine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1943), 386-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomics reveals strong association between milk metabolites and somatic cell count in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 Jan;96(1):290-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5819. Epub 2012 Nov 22. [PubMed:23182357 ]
  2. Sundekilde UK, Gustavsson F, Poulsen NA, Glantz M, Paulsson M, Larsen LB, Bertram HC: Association between the bovine milk metabolome and rennet-induced coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6076-84. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8304. Epub 2014 Jul 30. [PubMed:25087032 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
Q56JW4
Molecular weight:
19537.0
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Adenine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DDO
Uniprot ID:
P31228
Molecular weight:
37660.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P55859
Molecular weight:
32037.0
Reactions
Adenosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Adenine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Adenine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in purinergic nucleotide receptor activity, G-
Specific function:
Receptor for extracellular adenine nucleotides such as ADP (PubMed:7626079). In platelets, binding to ADP leads to mobilization of intracellular calcium ions via activation of phospholipase C, a change in platelet shape, and ultimately platelet aggregation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
P2RY1
Uniprot ID:
P48042
Molecular weight:
42288.0
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC25A4
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC05
Molecular weight:
32898.0