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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 23:03:47 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:28:25 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0003337
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB03337
Metabolite Identification
Common NameOxidized glutathione
DescriptionOxidized glutathione, also known as glutathione disulfide or GSSG, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligopeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of between three and ten alpha-amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Oxidized glutathione is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Oxidized glutathione exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Azaniumyl-4-{[(1R)-2-{[(2R)-2-[(4S)-4-azaniumyl-4-carboxylatobutanamido]-2-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]carbamoyl}butanoateHMDB
Glutathione disulfideHMDB
GSSGHMDB
L(-)-Glutathione(oxidized)HMDB
OxiglutationeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H32N6O12S2
Average Molecular Weight612.631
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight612.151961898
IUPAC Name2-amino-4-[(2-{[2-(4-amino-4-carboxybutanamido)-2-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl)carbamoyl]butanoic acid
Traditional Nameoxiglutatione
CAS Registry Number27025-41-8
SMILES
NC(CCC(=O)NC(CSSCC(NC(=O)CCC(N)C(O)=O)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H32N6O12S2/c21-9(19(35)36)1-3-13(27)25-11(17(33)23-5-15(29)30)7-39-40-8-12(18(34)24-6-16(31)32)26-14(28)4-2-10(22)20(37)38/h9-12H,1-8,21-22H2,(H,23,33)(H,24,34)(H,25,27)(H,26,28)(H,29,30)(H,31,32)(H,35,36)(H,37,38)
InChI KeyYPZRWBKMTBYPTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligopeptides. These are organic compounds containing a sequence of between three and ten alpha-amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentOligopeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-oligopeptide
  • Gamma-glutamyl alpha peptide
  • Glutamine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Tetracarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Cysteine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Amino acid
  • Dialkyldisulfide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic disulfide
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.6ALOGPS
logP-10ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area317.64 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count21ChemAxon
Refractivity136.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability58.43 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-c8147955c6b355f0fc5cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-3e6195d480fbfe87b449View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02t9-2121090000-ae2cd04146f2eea049a5View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01q3-2111039000-a2c6d786111b549344feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-04456f914411a2ecbe4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-772eee67ad10a2d98fa7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-08fr-1957008000-f8812fd72d475ecd2693View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0000109000-65d563bcfc551b4a7abdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-0003309000-7555effd0b74737b9d2fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-0259201000-2cd328143ce713c285d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-05d0-0493000000-93bd088394049a484b9dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001r-0190000000-88b871b5a3f668f4b3a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0a59-0019811000-b24651cf6fc55de750b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053s-0495300000-69ab8e397b7a546ecd3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-39da34018ceb610daa32View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0000009000-9cde769e8905f413f7e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0000009000-4e3c9569882ab5507bf2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-02na-2011492000-e5bf21a4b84acc1cf18fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9002540000-c313b0aedf04e56ccf77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9012110000-27ec93f3d13ce2136a4fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0147096000-d734e389344c1dc9b900View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0lxx-1597071000-aba0237f549185706415View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0007-9501140000-204a269186f92e44ac10View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Leukocyte
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BrainExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
ErythrocyteExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LeukocyteExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0003337
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023147
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID950
KEGG Compound IDC00127
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33951
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione disulfide
METLIN ID6893
PubChem Compound975
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17858
References
Synthesis ReferenceSaito, Susumu; Nishijima, Kunihide; Kataoka, Katsuyuki; Aoyanagi, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Yoji; Ito, Homare. Manufacture of oxidized glutathione from reduced glutathione with ascorbic acid and ascorbate oxidase. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1995), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Involved in the control of reactive oxygen species levels and the regulation of mitochondrial redox homeostasis (By similarity). Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9N2I8
Molecular weight:
54670.0
Reactions
Oxidized glutathione + NADPH →2 Glutathione + NADPdetails
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Essential antioxidant peroxidase that directly reduces phospholipid hydroperoxide even if they are incorporated in membranes and lipoproteins (By similarity). Can also reduce fatty acid hydroperoxide, cholesterol hydroperoxide and thymine hydroperoxide (By similarity). Plays a key role in protecting cells from oxidative damage by preventing membrane lipid peroxidation. Required to prevent cells from ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic cell death resulting from an iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. The presence of selenocysteine (Sec) versus Cys at the active site is essential for life: it provides resistance to overoxidation and prevents cells against ferroptosis. The presence of Sec at the active site is also essential for the survival of a specific type of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, thereby preventing against fatal epileptic seizures. May be required to protect cells from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Essential for maturation and survival of photoreceptor cells. Plays a role in a primary T-cell response to viral and parasitic infection by protecting T-cells from ferroptosis and by supporting T-cell expansion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9N2J2
Molecular weight:
22240.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P00435
Molecular weight:
22659.0
Reactions
2 Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione +2 Waterdetails
15(S)-HPETE + 2 Glutathione → 15(S)-HETE + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Possesses significant protein thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.
Gene Name:
TXNDC12
Uniprot ID:
Q5E936
Molecular weight:
19222.0