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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:34:08 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:03:49 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000641
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00641
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Glutamine
DescriptionL-Glutamine, also known as levoglutamide or Q, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom. L-Glutamine is a drug which is used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. It is used to reduce the acute complications of sickle cell disease in adult and pediatric patients 5 years of age and older [fda label]. L-Glutamine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Glutamine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Glutamine can be converted into phenylacetylglutamine; which is mediated by the enzyme glycine N-acyltransferase. In cattle, L-glutamine is involved in the metabolic pathway called the phenylacetate metabolism pathway. L-Glutamine is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-Amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acidChEBI
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acidChEBI
Glutamic acid 5-amideChEBI
Glutamic acid amideChEBI
GLUTAMINEChEBI
L-(+)-GlutamineChEBI
L-2-Aminoglutaramic acidChEBI
L-Glutamic acid gamma-amideChEBI
L-GlutaminChEBI
L-Glutaminsaeure-5-amidChEBI
LevoglutamideChEBI
QChEBI
EndariKegg
NutrestoreKegg
(2S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoateGenerator
(2S)-2-Amino-4-carbamoylbutanoateGenerator
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoateGenerator
Glutamate 5-amideGenerator
Glutamate amideGenerator
L-2-AminoglutaramateGenerator
L-Glutamate g-amideGenerator
L-Glutamate gamma-amideGenerator
L-Glutamate γ-amideGenerator
L-Glutamic acid g-amideGenerator
L-Glutamic acid γ-amideGenerator
2-Aminoglutaramic acidHMDB
CebrogenHMDB
gamma-GlutamineHMDB
GlavaminHMDB
GluminHMDB
L-2-Aminoglutaramidic acidHMDB
L-Glutamic acid 5-amideHMDB
L-GlutamidHMDB
L-GlutamideHMDB
LevoglutamidHMDB
LevoglutamidaHMDB
LevoglutamidumHMDB
LevoglutaminaHMDB
PolyglutamineHMDB
StimulinaHMDB
D-GlutamineHMDB
D GlutamineHMDB
L GlutamineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H10N2O3
Average Molecular Weight146.1445
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.069142196
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Traditional NameL-glutamine
CAS Registry Number56-85-9
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyZDXPYRJPNDTMRX-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point185 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility41.3 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-3.64CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-4ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-4921200000-5446333d9aa592da8a07View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-ce2b15fe45c57a30c6bbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1900000000-7be5eab1056d2a249ab5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5dc2d147bea250c7b80eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fb9-0921000000-5dcbab01982f543f7925View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004j-0940000000-102c9a43b5153f06927fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-716b1947d48f42862cdfView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9610000000-bfd7aa529a6e7f62de43View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0059-3900000000-c8f487d1a561e49327c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-eee04836e7577e11d0d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-54ffbe5be8d7dbede389View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-79283391c985f8286677View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6afbd5929b6e2371a371View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d5bd83614703b048228eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc8def340a2655f9a399View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-47e3e94a4387c53e0bd6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c1acfa3750a90d81ce15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-93f01bccbc98f18d4b07View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ce03708ec9ce55cd8952View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933201000-9339494cebedd9c39135View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-64561a4c3590d5994e37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fdcdd7591fb182d804e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0030900000-66314ae704783630947aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933100000-8798d2e46a415bb1029aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-dddea137e500a9b364ccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a78f8e4b2d6b37917b21View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-8c6e1eb7de6f70911080View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fa42fc4bcba608992804View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-074610880ea19a417f60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-059x-9200000000-8b7dae54eb8325667bd7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e115d9215eea3f0c3629View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-55b1ac62eea66274b984View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001j-0900000000-c9c71895033d66cb2becView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-bc4e294b8a3fd8c5abceView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Blood
  • Colostrum
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified95-126 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified35.2 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified330 +/- 42 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified246-260 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Trabi M, Keller M...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified1433 +/- 231 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected and Quantified1911-2576 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified2841 +/- 828 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified17.0 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified20 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified10.0 +/- 0.3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified17 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1148.18 +/- 201.58 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1508.29 +/- 185.39 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1582.02 +/- 237.99 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified412-1820 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified9330 +/- 960 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6470 +/- 1360 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6060 +/- 680 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6180 +/- 650 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified476.93 +/- 64.67 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified910 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified277-443 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified3051-4834 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified830.5 +/- 251.38 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified945.3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified993.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified907.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified830.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified946 +/- 239 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified994 +/- 358 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified907 +/- 255 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified831 +/- 252 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified831 +/- 251 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified2492 +/- 668 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SpleenExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
TestisDetected and Quantified1517 +/- 338 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1342 +/- 416 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Right displaced abomasum (RDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2978 +/- 411 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Left displaced abomasum (LDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2050 +/- 692 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Hepatic lipidosis
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Fed pasture vs barley-based concentrate
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Fed pasture vs barley-based concentrate
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified907.56 +/- 247.09 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000641
DrugBank IDDB00130
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030965
KNApSAcK IDC00001359
Chemspider ID5746
KEGG Compound IDC00064
BioCyc IDGLN
BiGG ID33714
Wikipedia LinkGlutamine
METLIN ID5614
PubChem Compound5961
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18050
References
Synthesis ReferenceJiao, Qingcai; Qian, Shaosong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Xiaoyan. Synthesis of L-glutamine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 7 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Scano P, Murgia A, Pirisi FM, Caboni P: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6057-66. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8247. Epub 2014 Aug 6. [PubMed:25108860 ]
  2. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  3. Mung D, Li L: Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Feb 25;1001:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.019. Epub 2017 Nov 14. [PubMed:29291809 ]
  4. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  5. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Enzymes

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine (By similarity). Its role depends on tissue localization: in the brain, it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of ammonia (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Independently of its glutamine synthetase activity, required for endothelial cell migration during vascular development: acts by regulating membrane localization and activation of the GTPase RHOJ, possibly by promoting RHOJ palmitoylation. May act as a palmitoyltransferase for RHOJ: able to autopalmitoylate and then transfer the palmitoyl group to RHOJ (By similarity). Plays a role in ribosomal 40S subunit biogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUL
Uniprot ID:
P15103
Molecular weight:
42031.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASNS
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZA3
Molecular weight:
64220.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GFPT2
Uniprot ID:
Q08DQ2
Molecular weight:
77081.0
Reactions
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine → Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Allows the formation of correctly charged Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) in the mitochondria. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated gamma-phospho-Glu-tRNA(Gln).
Gene Name:
QRSL1
Uniprot ID:
Q29RP9
Molecular weight:
57300.0
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins, such as WDR54, and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins.
Gene Name:
TGM2
Uniprot ID:
P51176
Molecular weight:
77112.0
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD to form NAD. Uses L-glutamine as a nitrogen source.
Gene Name:
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZBF0
Molecular weight:
79400.0
Reactions
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamine → NAD + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Glutamine--tRNA ligase. Plays a critical role in brain development.
Gene Name:
QARS1
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHH4
Molecular weight:
87643.0
Reactions
L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + tRNA(Gln) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln)details
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Gene Name:
F13A1
Uniprot ID:
P12260
Molecular weight:
22745.0
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate a multitude of substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIR7
Molecular weight:
33907.0
Reactions
Phenylacetyl-CoA + L-Glutamine → Alpha-N-Phenylacetyl-L-glutamine + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Functions as a sodium-dependent amino acid transporter which countertransport protons. Mediates the saturable, pH-sensitive, and electrogenic cotransport of several neutral amino acids including glycine, asparagine, alanine, serine, glutamine and histidine with sodium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC38A5
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9S9
Molecular weight:
51958.0
General function:
Involved in L-glutamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A1
Uniprot ID:
B0LSH3
Molecular weight:
2372.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q866Q8
Molecular weight:
21625.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHG9
Molecular weight:
40823.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Intrinsically disordered protein that acts as a scaffold, and which is involved in different processes, such as pre-mRNA splicing, transcription regulation, innate immunity and neuron development. Interacts with splicing-related factors via the intrinsically disordered region and regulates alternative splicing of target pre-mRNA species. May suppress the ability of POU3F2 to transactivate the DRD1 gene in a POU3F2 dependent manner. Can activate transcription directly or via association with the transcription machinery. May be involved in ATXN1 mutant-induced cell death. The interaction with ATXN1 mutant reduces levels of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II large subunit. Involved in the assembly of cytoplasmic stress granule, possibly by participating to the transport of neuronal RNA granules. Also acts as an innate immune sensor of infection by retroviruses, by detecting the presence of reverse-transcribed DNA in the cytosol. Directly binds retroviral reverse-transcribed DNA in the cytosol and interacts with CGAS, leading to activate the cGAS-STING signaling pathway, triggering type-I interferon production.
Gene Name:
PQBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJC9
Molecular weight:
30346.0
General function:
Involved in L-glutamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
B0LSH5
Molecular weight:
2581.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q5BIN7
Molecular weight:
55315.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CAD
Uniprot ID:
F1MVC0
Molecular weight:
243038.0
Reactions
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water →2 ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Carbamoylphosphatedetails
L-Glutamine + 2 Adenosine triphosphate + Water + Hydrogen carbonate → Carbamoylphosphate +2 ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
E1BHZ6
Molecular weight:
66700.0
Reactions
L-Glutamine + Water → L-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
F1MV22
Molecular weight:
59900.0
Reactions
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid → L-Glutamine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Waterdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GMPS
Uniprot ID:
Q2T9U0
Molecular weight:
77865.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Water + L-Glutamine → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Guanosine monophosphatedetails