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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:31:32 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:50:13 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000492
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00492
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChlorine
DescriptionChloride ion, also known as chloride(1-) or Cl, belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas. Chloride ion exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely strong acidic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Chloride ion exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In cattle, chloride ion is involved in the metabolic pathway called the kidney function pathway. Chloride ion is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Chloride(1-)ChEBI
Chlorine anionChEBI
CL(-)ChEBI
ChlorideKegg
BertholiteHMDB
ChloorHMDB
ChlorHMDB
ChloreHMDB
ChlorineHMDB
Chlorine gasHMDB
ClHMDB
Cl2HMDB
Diatomic chlorineHMDB
DichlorineHMDB
Molecular chlorineHMDB
Chloride ion levelHMDB
Ion level, chlorideHMDB
ChloridesHMDB
Level, chloride ionHMDB
MSR-1 Protein, nicotiana plumbaginifoliaHMDB
PLS216 Protein, nicotiana plumbaginifoliaHMDB
Chemical FormulaCl
Average Molecular Weight35.453
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight34.968852707
IUPAC Namechloride
Traditional Namechloride
CAS Registry Number16887-00-6
SMILES
[Cl-]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H/p-1
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous halogens. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom is a nobel gas.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous halogens
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous halogens
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous halogen
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateGas
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.62 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.39 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-c4fb3d037fe2e74c2a5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d488e6da5c7ecb77869aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Blood
  • Milk
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected and Quantified98400 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified107300 +/- 360 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified28206.358 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Park, Y. W; Juáre...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified97000 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with bovine somatotropin
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000492
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB006557
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4514529
KEGG Compound IDC00698
BioCyc IDCL-
BiGG ID50130
Wikipedia LinkChloride
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound312
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17996
References
Synthesis ReferenceWeber, Rainer; Bulan, Andreas; Haas, Michel; Warsitz, Rafael; Werner, Knud. Production of chlorine from hydrogen chloride and oxygen. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 30pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007134861 A1 20071129 CAN 148:35931 AN 2007:1361621
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W. (2007). Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W.. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Res.(2007) 68:88-113 doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.013. Small Ruminant Research.

Enzymes

General function:
Defense mechanisms
Specific function:
Epithelial ion channel that plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion and water transport and fluid homeostasis. Mediates the transport of chloride ions across the cell membrane (By similarity). Channel activity is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The ion channel is also permeable to HCO(3-); selectivity depends on the extracellular chloride concentration. Exerts its function also by modulating the activity of other ion channels and transporters. Contributes to the regulation of the pH and the ion content of the epithelial fluid layer. Modulates the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) complex, in part by regulating the cell surface expression of the ENaC complex. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the transporter SLC4A7. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1 (By similarity). Plays a role in the chloride and bicarbonate homeostasis during sperm epididymal maturation and capacitation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P35071
Molecular weight:
167758.0
General function:
Involved in carboxypeptidase activity
Specific function:
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACE
Uniprot ID:
P12820
Molecular weight:
10681.0
General function:
Involved in carboxypeptidase activity
Specific function:
Carboxypeptidase which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a peptide of unknown function, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, a vasodilator (By similarity). Also able to hydrolyze apelin-13 and dynorphin-13 with high efficiency. By cleavage of angiotensin II, may be an important regulator of heart function (By similarity). By cleavage of angiotensin II, may also have a protective role in acute lung injury (By similarity). Plays an important role in amino acid transport by acting as binding partner of amino acid transporter SLC6A19 in intestine, regulating trafficking, expression on the cell surface, and its catalytic activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACE2
Uniprot ID:
Q58DD0
Molecular weight:
93067.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC26A6
Uniprot ID:
Q08DQ8
Molecular weight:
83332.0
General function:
Involved in collagen binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TN-X
Uniprot ID:
O18977
Molecular weight:
447384.0
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Thiol protease. Has dipeptidylpeptidase activity. Can act as both an exopeptidase and endopeptidase. Can degrade glucagon. Plays a role in the generation of cytotoxic lymphocyte effector function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CTSC
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCJ8
Molecular weight:
51949.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Ligand-gated chloride channel which is a component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain (PubMed:2548852). Plays an important role in the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses in addition to mediating synaptic inhibition as a GABA-gated ion channel (By similarity). The gamma2 subunit is necessary but not sufficient for a rapid formation of active synaptic contacts and the synaptogenic effect of this subunit is influenced by the type of alpha and beta subunits present in the receptor pentamer (By similarity). The alpha1/beta2/gamma2 receptor and the alpha2/beta2/gamma2 receptor exhibit synaptogenic activity (By similarity). Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P0C2W5
Molecular weight:
54451.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA06
Molecular weight:
50430.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
clcn5
Uniprot ID:
Q68V31
Molecular weight:
20749.0
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
clc2
Uniprot ID:
Q6A194
Molecular weight:
15399.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Can insert into membranes and form chloride ion channels.
Gene Name:
CLIC4
Uniprot ID:
Q9XSA7
Molecular weight:
28727.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLCA4
Uniprot ID:
Q3SYU0
Molecular weight:
103420.0
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLIC3
Uniprot ID:
A6QL90
Molecular weight:
26628.0
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLIC2
Uniprot ID:
A2VE46
Molecular weight:
28336.0
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel acti
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
A6QQP6
Molecular weight:
53800.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLCN2
Uniprot ID:
A6QNR5
Molecular weight:
99214.0
General function:
Involved in calcium channel activity
Specific function:
May be involved in mediating calcium-activated chloride conductance (PubMed:8537359). May play critical roles in goblet cell metaplasia, mucus hypersecretion, cystic fibrosis and AHR. May be involved in the regulation of mucus production and/or secretion by goblet cells. Involved in the regulation of tissue inflammation in the innate immune response. May play a role as a tumor suppressor. Induces MUC5AC.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P54281
Molecular weight:
100306.0
General function:
Involved in UDP-activated nucleotide receptor activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHU8
Molecular weight:
17510.0
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Glycine receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels. Channel opening is triggered by extracellular glycine. Channel opening is also triggered by taurine and beta-alanine. Channel characteristics depend on the subunit composition; heteropentameric channels are activated by lower glycine levels and display faster desensitization (By similarity). Plays an important role in the down-regulation of neuronal excitability (PubMed:11178872). Contributes to the generation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Channel activity is potentiated by ethanol (By similarity). Potentiation of channel activity by intoxicating levels of ethanol contribute to the sedative effects of ethanol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P57695
Molecular weight:
52614.0
General function:
Involved in potassium:chloride symporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC12A5
Uniprot ID:
A8KC65
Molecular weight:
129418.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLCN7
Uniprot ID:
A6QQR2
Molecular weight:
88807.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLCN4
Uniprot ID:
Q4F894
Molecular weight:
84893.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Ligand-gated chloride channel subunit which is a component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. May be involved in GABA-A receptor assembly, and GABA-A receptor immobilization and accumulation by gephyrin at the synapse.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
Q08E50
Molecular weight:
52172.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine (By similarity). Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08220
Molecular weight:
54130.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q4QRP1
Molecular weight:
15737.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Slowly voltage-gated channel mediating the exchange of chloride ions against protons (By similarity). Functions as antiporter and contributes to the acidification of the lysosome lumen and may be involved in maintaining lysosomal pH (By similarity). The CLC channel family contains both chloride channels and proton-coupled anion transporters that exchange chloride or another anion for protons (By similarity). The presence of conserved gating glutamate residues is typical for family members that function as antiporters (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CLCN7
Uniprot ID:
Q4PKH3
Molecular weight:
88831.0
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Required for normal hearing. It is necessary for the formation of stereocilia in the inner ear and normal development of the organ of Corti. Can insert into membranes and form poorly selective ion channels that may also transport chloride ions. May play a role in the regulation of transepithelial ion absorption and secretion. Is required for the development and/or maintenance of the proper glomerular endothelial cell and podocyte architecture. Plays a role in formation of the lens suture in the eye, which is important for normal optical properties of the lens.
Gene Name:
CLIC5
Uniprot ID:
P35526
Molecular weight:
48959.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P20237
Molecular weight:
61547.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Ligand-gated chloride channel which is a component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain (By similarity). Plays an important role in the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses in addition to mediating synaptic inhibition as a GABA-gated ion channel (By similarity). The gamma2 subunit is necessary but not sufficient for a rapid formation of active synaptic contacts and the synaptogenic effect of this subunit is influenced by the type of alpha and beta subunits present in the receptor pentamer (By similarity). The alpha1/beta2/gamma2 receptor, alpha2/beta2/gamma2 receptor and the alpha1/beta3/gamma2 receptor exhibit synaptogenic activity whereas the alpha2/beta3/gamma2 receptor shows very little or no synaptogenic activity (By similarity). Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P22300
Molecular weight:
55265.0
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A0JN66
Molecular weight:
4036.0
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel acti
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
Q0II82
Molecular weight:
31434.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Can insert into membranes and form chloride ion channels. Channel activity depends on the pH. Membrane insertion seems to be redox-regulated and may occur only under oxydizing conditions (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CLIC1
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9B7
Molecular weight:
26992.0
General function:
Involved in cation:chloride symporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
O18978
Molecular weight:
130394.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
O97740
Molecular weight:
17189.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P10064
Molecular weight:
55284.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Ligand-gated chloride channel which is a component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain (PubMed:2842688). Plays an important role in the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses in addition to mediating synaptic inhibition as a GABA-gated ion channel (By similarity). The gamma2 subunit is necessary but not sufficient for a rapid formation of active synaptic contacts and the synaptogenic effect of this subunit is influenced by the type of alpha and beta subunits present in the receptor pentamer (By similarity). The alpha2/beta2/gamma2 receptor exhibits synaptogenic activity whereas the alpha2/beta3/gamma2 receptor shows very little or no synaptogenic activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P10063
Molecular weight:
51146.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Seems to act as a chloride ion channel (By similarity). Plays a role in retina development (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CLCC1
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZF8
Molecular weight:
61812.0
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Glycine receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels. GLRB does not form ligand-gated ion channels by itself, but is part of heteromeric ligand-gated chloride channels. Channel opening is triggered by extracellular glycine. Heteropentameric channels composed of GLRB and GLRA1 are activated by lower glycine levels than homopentameric GLRA1. Plays an important role in the down-regulation of neuronal excitability. Contributes to the generation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents.
Gene Name:
GLRB
Uniprot ID:
Q9GJS9
Molecular weight:
56039.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Probable chloride channel. May be involved in cell adhesion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TTYH1
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJ98
Molecular weight:
49230.0
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel acti
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
Q0II76
Molecular weight:
54122.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Has calcium-dependent phospholipid scramblase activity; scrambles phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and galactosylceramide (By similarity). Does not exhibit calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ANO4
Uniprot ID:
A6QLE6
Molecular weight:
107708.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Ligand-gated chloride channel which is a component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain (PubMed:3037384). Plays an important role in the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses in addition to mediating synaptic inhibition as a GABA-gated ion channel (By similarity). The gamma2 subunit is necessary but not sufficient for a rapid formation of active synaptic contacts and the synaptogenic effect of this subunit is influenced by the type of alpha and beta subunits present in the receptor pentamer (By similarity). The alpha1/beta2/gamma2 receptor and the alpha1/beta3/gamma2 receptor exhibit synaptogenic activity (By similarity). GABRA1-mediated plasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex regulates context-dependent action selection (By similarity). Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P08219
Molecular weight:
51856.0
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
Associates with and regulates the activity of the sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (NKA) which transports Na(+) out of the cell and K(+) into the cell (PubMed:12657675). Inhibits NKA activity in its unphosphorylated state and stimulates activity when phosphorylated (By similarity). Reduces glutathionylation of the NKA beta-1 subunit ATP1B1, thus reversing glutathionylation-mediated inhibition of ATP1B1 (By similarity). Contributes to female sexual development by maintaining the excitability of neurons which secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FXYD1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZX0
Molecular weight:
10447.0
General function:
Involved in cell volume homeostasis
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CLNS1A
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZ90
Molecular weight:
26207.0