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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:34 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:43:45 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000177
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00177
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Histidine
DescriptionL-Histidine, also known as H, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as histidine and derivatives. Histidine and derivatives are compounds containing cysteine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of cysteine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. L-Histidine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Histidine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Histidine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, beta-Alanine and L-histidine can be biosynthesized from carnosine; which is catalyzed by the enzyme Beta-ala-his dipeptidase. Furthermore, L-Histidine and beta-alanine can be converted into carnosine through the action of the enzyme carnosine synthase 1. Finally, beta-Alanine and L-histidine can be biosynthesized from carnosine through the action of the enzyme Beta-ala-his dipeptidase. In cattle, L-histidine is involved in a couple of metabolic pathways, which include the histidine metabolism pathway and the beta-alanine metabolism pathway. L-Histidine is a potentially toxic compound. L-Histidine has been found to be associated with several diseases known as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment, pyridoxamine 5-prime-phosphate oxidase deficiency, and epilepsy; also l-histidine has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including maple syrup urine disease.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-4-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)imidazoleChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionic acidChEBI
HChEBI
HisChEBI
HISTIDINEChEBI
L-(-)-HistidineChEBI
L-HistidinChEBI
(S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionic acidGenerator
(S)-1H-Imidazole-4-alanineHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-(4-imidazolyl)propionsaeureHMDB
(S)-HistidineHMDB
(S)1H-Imidazole-4-alanineHMDB
3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)-L-alanineHMDB
Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoateHMDB
Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acidHMDB
Amino-4-imidazoleproprionateHMDB
Amino-4-imidazoleproprionic acidHMDB
Glyoxaline-5-alanineHMDB
Histidine, L isomerHMDB
Histidine, L-isomerHMDB
L-Isomer histidineHMDB
L-HistidineKEGG
Chemical FormulaC6H9N3O2
Average Molecular Weight155.1546
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight155.069476547
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-histidine
CAS Registry Number71-00-1
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CN=CN1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H9N3O2/c7-5(6(10)11)1-4-2-8-3-9-4/h2-3,5H,1,7H2,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyHNDVDQJCIGZPNO-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as histidine and derivatives. Histidine and derivatives are compounds containing cysteine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of cysteine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentHistidine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Histidine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Aralkylamine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point287 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility45.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.32CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.1ALOGPS
logP-3.6ChemAxon
logS-0.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.85ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0940000000-43b9b035189af65e19cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0910000000-fc3ecec9d4ff3aa8cb09View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0910000000-8284a673a35f7ac2241fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fk9-8910000000-a3231b1a418b5798ecacView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-1920000000-227e8116769731104e82View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0ufu-2942100000-31605fd50ecc1f5be0edView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0940000000-43b9b035189af65e19cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0910000000-fc3ecec9d4ff3aa8cb09View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0910000000-8284a673a35f7ac2241fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-2901100000-ae0f3865934743de764cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fk9-8910000000-a3231b1a418b5798ecacView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1920000000-227e8116769731104e82View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ufu-2942100000-31605fd50ecc1f5be0edView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ue9-0900000000-75e38a3f347210c301b0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0910000000-c54bd92cc112eec7e509View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9500000000-1d29684ccb6383687865View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03di-6900000000-1dd400a16b8067f4daeaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-21530fac9975dc1edc7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053r-9300000000-a946c375931adb366aaeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053r-9000000000-61a3602d80bc0d54c579View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-7d63b501889c2628f4f0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d4ccd4e44ca818b4cb17View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-811aee5724fe0999c134View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-052753eb699ae7cb4cb9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-3e145a05e6a71a0a2f56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-143a4b9d88183bc5abe7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-a8c213472da676a241f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dfdf9562f155abb5fdebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uk9-0879331100-8434b5b9e7e5700c2353View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-aaaaadcecd4cd7c94e1eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-90c4cbd09d7abc003013View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-1381708d18c24486773dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0w29-0696321100-eb62fc608270d1151707View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-3450566ff38e6506a70fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-7900000000-124509a66476629ce10aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-efa6a21b1be16fda0802View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-137840e69da48c6114e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udu-3900000000-06d50e90c797793a72d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-de7c9eb8068ef4f39f85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00l6-9000000000-ebf778679d4c6d6a6057View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-08d0188684283d1b2372View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-46c2f608d27f0381a039View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9100000000-ae0a0b81669663b3b4a5View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Blood
  • Colostrum
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified74-84 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified91.6 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified76-93 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified52.3-54.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified78 +/- 10 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified382 +/- 67 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified75 +/- 18 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.0 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3.1 +/- 0.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified4.2 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.8 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified4 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified4 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified134-281 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified58-484 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified43 +/- 9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified55 +/- 14 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified29 +/- 11 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified32 +/- 10 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified29.7 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified35.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified24.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified31.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified16.1 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified47.98 +/- 15.77 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified44 +/- 28 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified42.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified55.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified28.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified48 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified85 +/- 20 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified20 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified61 +/- 13 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified28.84 +/- 10.52 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000177
DrugBank IDDB00117
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB011856
KNApSAcK IDC00001363
Chemspider ID6038
KEGG Compound IDC00135
BioCyc IDHIS
BiGG ID33985
Wikipedia LinkL-histidine
METLIN ID21
PubChem Compound6274
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15971
References
Synthesis ReferenceAurelio Luigi; Brownlee Robert T C; Hughes Andrew B A novel synthesis of N-methyl asparagine, arginine, histidine, and tryptophan. Organic letters (2002), 4(21), 3767-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  2. Mung D, Li L: Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Feb 25;1001:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.019. Epub 2017 Nov 14. [PubMed:29291809 ]
  3. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  4. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  5. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in histone binding
Specific function:
Arginine methyltransferase that can catalyze the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (aDMA), with a strong preference for the formation of aDMA. Preferentially methylates arginyl residues present in a glycine and arginine-rich domain and displays preference for monomethylated substrates. Specifically mediates the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 'Arg-2' to form H3R2me2a. H3R2me2a represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression and is mutually exclusive with methylation on histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3). Acts as a transcriptional repressor of various genes such as HOXA2, THBS1 and TP53 (By similarity). Repression of TP53 blocks cellular senescence (By similarity). Also methylates histone H2A and H4 'Arg-3' (H2AR3me and H4R3me, respectively). Acts as a regulator of DNA base excision during DNA repair by mediating the methylation of DNA polymerase beta (POLB), leading to the stimulation of its polymerase activity by enhancing DNA binding and processivity. Methylates HMGA1. Regulates alternative splicing events. Acts as a transcriptional coactivator of a number of steroid hormone receptors including ESR1, ESR2, PGR and NR3C1. Promotes fasting-induced transcriptional activation of the gluconeogenic program through methylation of the CRTC2 transcription coactivator. Methylates GPS2, protecting GPS2 from ubiquitination and degradation. Methylates SIRT7, inhibiting SIRT7 histone deacetylase activity and promoting mitochondria biogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRMT6
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9L5
Molecular weight:
41868.0
Reactions
L-Histidine + S-Adenosylmethionine → 3-Methylhistidine + S-Adenosylhomocysteinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA83
Molecular weight:
73912.0
Reactions
L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a variety of dipeptides including L-carnosine but has a strong preference for Cys-Gly. Catalyzes the production of N-lactoyl-amino acids from lactate and amino acids by reverse proteolysis.
Gene Name:
CNDP2
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC84
Molecular weight:
52655.0
Reactions
Carnosine + Water → Beta-Alanine + L-Histidinedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolase probably involved in steroid biosynthesis. May play a role in apoptosis. Has adenosine phosphoramidase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HINT2
Uniprot ID:
Q8SQ21
Molecular weight:
17147.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HAL
Uniprot ID:
A7YWP4
Molecular weight:
72291.0
Reactions
L-Histidine → Ammonia + Urocanic aciddetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes phosphoramidate and acyl-adenylate substrates.
Gene Name:
HINT3
Uniprot ID:
Q2YDJ4
Molecular weight:
20470.0
General function:
Involved in serine-type peptidase activity
Specific function:
Required for the control of apoptosis during postnatal growth. Essential for proteolytic processing of an antiapoptotic form of OPA1 which prevents the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in response to intrinsic apoptotic signals (By similarity). Required for the maturation of PINK1 into its 52kDa mature form after its cleavage by mitochondrial-processing peptidase (MPP). Promotes changes in mitochondria morphology regulated by phosphorylation of P-beta domain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PARL
Uniprot ID:
Q2KHV4
Molecular weight:
42301.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes purine nucleotide phosphoramidates with a single phosphate group, including adenosine 5'monophosphoramidate (AMP-NH2), adenosine 5'monophosphomorpholidate (AMP-morpholidate) and guanosine 5'monophosphomorpholidate (GMP-morpholidate). Hydrolyzes lysyl-AMP (AMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester)) generated by lysine tRNA ligase, as well as Met-AMP, His-AMP and Asp-AMP, lysyl-GMP (GMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester)) and AMP-N-alanine methyl ester. Can also convert adenosine 5'-O-phosphorothioate and guanosine 5'-O-phosphorothioate to the corresponding nucleoside 5'-O-phosphates with concomitant release of hydrogen sulfide. In addition, functions as scaffolding protein that modulates transcriptional activation by the LEF1/TCF1-CTNNB1 complex and by the complex formed with MITF and CTNNB1. Modulates p53/TP53 levels and p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. Modulates proteasomal degradation of target proteins by the SCF (SKP2-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HINT1
Uniprot ID:
P62958
Molecular weight:
13779.0
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of histidine to the 3'-end of its cognate tRNA, via the formation of an aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate (His-AMP). Plays a role in axon guidance.
Gene Name:
HARS1
Uniprot ID:
Q2KI84
Molecular weight:
57285.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Histidyl-tRNA(His)details
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of histidine to the 3'-end of its cognate tRNA, via the formation of an aminoacyl-adenylate intermediate (His-AMP).
Gene Name:
HARS2
Uniprot ID:
A5D7V9
Molecular weight:
56914.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + tRNA(His) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Histidyl-tRNA(His)details
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Functions as a sodium-dependent amino acid transporter which countertransport protons. Mediates the saturable, pH-sensitive, and electrogenic cotransport of several neutral amino acids including glycine, asparagine, alanine, serine, glutamine and histidine with sodium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC38A5
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9S9
Molecular weight:
51958.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q866Q8
Molecular weight:
21625.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHG9
Molecular weight:
40823.0
General function:
Involved in L-glutamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
B0LSH5
Molecular weight:
2581.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC38A3
Uniprot ID:
Q5BIN7
Molecular weight:
55315.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HINT1
Uniprot ID:
A1XEA3
Molecular weight:
6000.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A5PJL9
Molecular weight:
54461.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Histidine + Beta-Alanine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Carnosinedetails