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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:40:16 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:12:18 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0001043
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB0060102
  • BMDB01043
  • BMDB60102
Metabolite Identification
Common NameArachidonic acid
DescriptionArachidonic acid, also known as arachidonate or AA, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms. Arachidonic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Arachidonic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Arachidonic acid has been found to be associated with several diseases known as colorectal cancer, hypertension, bladder infections, and gestational diabetes; also arachidonic acid has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including isovaleric acidemia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-5,8,11,14-Icosatetraenoic acidChEBI
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-Icosatetraenoic acidChEBI
AAChEBI
all-cis-5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acidChEBI
ARAChEBI
ArachidonateChEBI
ArachidonsaeureChEBI
cis-5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acidChEBI
cis-Delta(5,8,11,14)-Eicosatetraenoic acidChEBI
5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-Eicosatetraenoic acidKegg
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-Icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acidKegg
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-5,8,11,14-IcosatetraenoateGenerator
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-IcosatetraenoateGenerator
all-cis-5,8,11,14-EicosatetraenoateGenerator
cis-5,8,11,14-EicosatetraenoateGenerator
cis-delta(5,8,11,14)-EicosatetraenoateGenerator
cis-Δ(5,8,11,14)-eicosatetraenoateGenerator
cis-Δ(5,8,11,14)-eicosatetraenoic acidGenerator
5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-EicosatetraenoateGenerator
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-Icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoateGenerator
(all-Z)-5,8,11,14-EicosatetraenoateHMDB
(all-Z)-5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acidHMDB
5,8,11,14-all-cis-EicosatetraenoateHMDB
5,8,11,14-all-cis-Eicosatetraenoic acidHMDB
5,8,11,14-EicosatetraenoateHMDB
5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acidHMDB
5-cis,8-cis,11-cis,14-cis-EicosatetraenoateHMDB
5-cis,8-cis,11-cis,14-cis-Eicosatetraenoic acidHMDB
cis-D5,8,11,14-EicosatetraenoateHMDB
cis-D5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acidHMDB
ImmunocytophyteHMDB
Arachidonate, sodiumHMDB
Arachidonic acid, (all-Z)-isomer, 3H-labeledHMDB
Arachidonic acid, ammonium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Arachidonic acid, cerium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Arachidonic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Arachidonic acid, sodium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Vitamin FHMDB
Arachidonic acid, cesium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Arachidonic acid, lithium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Arachidonic acid, potassium salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
Sodium arachidonateHMDB
Arachidonic acid, (all-Z)-isomer, 1-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Arachidonic acid, zinc salt, (all-Z)-isomerHMDB
FA(20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z))HMDB
FA(20:4n6)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H32O2
Average Molecular Weight304.4669
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight304.240230268
IUPAC Name(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid
Traditional Namearachidonic acid
CAS Registry Number506-32-1
SMILES
CCCCC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20(21)22/h6-7,9-10,12-13,15-16H,2-5,8,11,14,17-19H2,1H3,(H,21,22)/b7-6-,10-9-,13-12-,16-15-
InChI KeyYZXBAPSDXZZRGB-DOFZRALJSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Adiposome
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Membrane
  • Myelin sheath
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP6.98SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP6.8ALOGPS
logP6.59ChemAxon
logS-6.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.82ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity99.95 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability37.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-005c-9800000000-87c290971fc8a628fb23View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-005c-9800000000-87c290971fc8a628fb23View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-6900000000-6870df266b6c73f2a4a1View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-7390000000-7004b9cd28a9b3d9c991View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05i9-9252000000-475d13959ee8ce889646View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0nmi-0913000000-95846e8d5e8afd29664bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-005l-0902100000-6fc8730bd28daa779b66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-005l-0902100000-6fc8730bd28daa779b66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-005l-0902100000-6fc8730bd28daa779b66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-4dd23c77f8e48c0ab9ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-4dd23c77f8e48c0ab9ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-6bd9d0477c122d3eed94View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-510ea33e558fa238a1d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-73a6b21464acba15463cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-4dd23c77f8e48c0ab9ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0049000000-102d050109d3c78b1a25View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-2fb9003e782ec3d05e20View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0nmi-0913000000-95846e8d5e8afd29664bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-6bd9d0477c122d3eed94View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-510ea33e558fa238a1d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0049000000-102d050109d3c78b1a25View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-1196000000-a42ea66033eb9771d36dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4j-5691000000-2bc7b1ae5487233dfce8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-7950000000-b15a8d382a4b3ad62d08View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0029000000-28a9bbfed5fabd10c0c2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-2079000000-3f6e64ef7522a793e9a9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9130000000-9c0c8bb5fc8e30bf53c7View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Adiposome
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Membrane
  • Myelin sheath
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Blood
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Oocyte
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified692.62 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified953.93 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified310.94 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified899.7 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified872.71 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected and Quantified1345.14 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. Mapiye, T.D.Tu...
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Adipose TissueDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LungExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified656.886 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1313.772 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1642.215 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1116.706 +/- 459.820 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2594.698 +/- 624.0414 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2463.321 +/- 525.509 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected and Quantified952.484 +/- 328.443 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M. Ferrand et al....
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
OocyteDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Skeletal MuscleExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
SpleenExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
TestisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Thyroid GlandExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Heat stress
details
HMDB IDHMDB0001043
DrugBank IDDB04557
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB011872
KNApSAcK IDC00000388
Chemspider ID392692
KEGG Compound IDC00219
BioCyc IDARACHIDONIC_ACID
BiGG ID1586189
Wikipedia LinkArachidonic_acid
METLIN ID193
PubChem Compound444899
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15843
References
Synthesis ReferenceDai, Chuanchao; Yuan, Zhilin; Wang, Anqi. Production of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid with organic wastewater of soybean products. Zhongguo Youzhi (2004), 29(5), 31-33.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Jensen RG: The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Feb;85(2):295-350. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74079-4. [PubMed:11913692 ]
  2. van Gastelen S, Antunes-Fernandes EC, Hettinga KA, Dijkstra J: Relationships between methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows and fatty acids, volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites in milk. Animal. 2017 Sep;11(9):1539-1548. doi: 10.1017/S1751731117000295. Epub 2017 Feb 21. [PubMed:28219465 ]
  3. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  4. M. Ferrand, B. Huquet. S. Barbey, F. Barillet, F. Faucon, H. Larroque, O. Leray, J.M. Trommenschlager, M. Brochard (2011). M. Ferrand et al. Determination of fatty acid profile in cow's milk using mid-infrared spectrometry: Interest of applying a variable selection by genetic algorithms before a PLS regression. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 106 (2011) 183?189. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems.
  5. M.J. Abarghuei, Y. Rouzbehan, A.Z.M Salem, M.J. Zamiri (2014). M.J. Abarghuei, Y. Rouzbehan, A.Z.M Salem, M.J. Zamiri. Nitrogen balance, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows fed pomegranate-peel extract. Livestock Science (2014) 164:72-80 doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2014.03.021. Livestock Science.

Enzymes

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Acts as a fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase that introduces a cis double bond at carbon 6 of the fatty acyl chain. Involved in biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) from the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (18:3n-3) precursors. Catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in this pathway which is the desaturation of LA (18:2n-6) and ALA (18:3n-3) into gamma-linoleate (GLA) (18:3n-6) and stearidonate (18:4n-3), respectively (By similarity). Subsequently, in the biosynthetic pathway of HUFA n-3 series, desaturates tetracosapentaenoate (24:5n-3) to tetracosahexaenoate (24:6n-3), which is then converted to docosahexaenoate (DHA)(22:6n-3), an important lipid for nervous system function (By similarity). Desaturates palmitate to produce the mono-unsaturated fatty acid sapienate, the most abundant fatty acid in sebum (By similarity). Also desaturates (11E)-octadecenoate (trans-vaccenoate)(18:1n-9), a metabolite in the biohydrogenation pathway of LA (18:2n-6) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FADS2
Uniprot ID:
A4FV48
Molecular weight:
52533.0
Reactions
8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid → Arachidonic aciddetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A28
Uniprot ID:
P79102
Molecular weight:
58152.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + NADPH + Oxygen → 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2D14
Uniprot ID:
Q01361
Molecular weight:
56083.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 19(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and its conjugates. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase). Acts as an omega and omega-1 hydroxylase for arachidonic acid and possibly for other long chain fatty acids. May modulate the arachidonic acid signaling pathway and play a role in other fatty acid signaling processes. May downregulate the biological activities of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, an endocannabinoid that has anti-nociceptive effects through inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH, TRPV1 receptor and T-type calcium channels. Catalyzes C-2 oxidation of the indole ring of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin forming a less active product 2-oxo-N-arachidonoyl-serotonin.
Gene Name:
CYP2U1
Uniprot ID:
Q0IIF9
Molecular weight:
61997.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 19(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of fatty acids. Mechanistically, uses molecular oxygen inserting one oxygen atom into a substrate, and reducing the second into a water molecule, with two electrons provided by NADPH via cytochrome P450 reductase (NADPH--hemoprotein reductase). Catalyzes the hydroxylation of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Hydroxylates fatty acids specifically at the omega-1 position displaying the highest catalytic activity for saturated fatty acids. May be involved in the oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
O18963
Molecular weight:
56827.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 14,15-epoxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 5,6-Epoxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase activity
Specific function:
Non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the stereo-specific peroxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids generating a spectrum of bioactive lipid mediators. Converts arachidonic acid into 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/12-HPETE and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/15-HPETE. Also converts linoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid. May also act on (12S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/(12S)-HPETE to produce hepoxilin A3. Probably plays an important role in the immune and inflammatory responses. Through the oxygenation of membrane-bound phosphatidylethanolamine in macrophages may favor clearance of apoptotic cells during inflammation by resident macrophages and prevent an autoimmune response associated with the clearance of apoptotic cells by inflammatory monocytes. In parallel, may regulate actin polymerization which is crucial for several biological processes, including macrophage function. May also regulate macrophage function through regulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway. Finally, it is also involved in the cellular response to IL13/interleukin-13. In addition to its role in the immune and inflammatory responses, may play a role in epithelial wound healing in the cornea maybe through production of lipoxin A4. May also play a role in endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the regulation of bone mass.
Gene Name:
ALOX15
Uniprot ID:
P27479
Molecular weight:
75124.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 15(S)-HPETEdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 8(S)-HPETEdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 12(R)-HPETEdetails
Arachidonic acid + Oxygen → 12(S)-HPETEdetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Has primarily calcium-dependent phospholipase and lysophospholipase activities, with a major role in membrane lipid remodeling and biosynthesis of lipid mediators of the inflammatory response (By similarity). Plays an important role in embryo implantation and parturition through its ability to trigger prostanoid production (By similarity). Preferentially hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-2 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A2 activity). Selectively hydrolyzes sn-2 arachidonoyl group from membrane phospholipids, providing the precursor for eicosanoid biosynthesis via the cyclooxygenase pathway. In an alternative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis, hydrolyzes sn-2 fatty acyl chain of eicosanoid lysophopholipids to release free bioactive eicosanoids. Hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-1 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A1 activity) only if an ether linkage rather than an ester linkage is present at the sn-2 position. This hydrolysis is not stereospecific. Has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase activities in the presence of phosphoinositides. Has O-acyltransferase activity. Catalyzes the transfer of fatty acyl chains from phospholipids to a primary hydroxyl group of glycerol (sn-1 or sn-3), potentially contributing to monoacylglycerol synthesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
A4IFJ5
Molecular weight:
85350.0
Reactions
PC(14:0/20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)) + Water → Arachidonic acid + LysoPC(14:0)details
General function:
Involved in receptor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). Also able to bind to snake PA2-like toxins. Although its precise function remains unclear, binding of sPLA2 to its receptor participates in both positive and negative regulation of sPLA2 functions as well as clearance of sPLA2. Binding of sPLA2-IB/PLA2G1B induces various effects depending on the cell type, such as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade to induce cell proliferation, the production of lipid mediators, selective release of arachidonic acid in bone marrow-derived mast cells. In neutrophils, binding of sPLA2-IB/PLA2G1B can activate p38 MAPK to stimulate elastase release and cell adhesion. May be involved in responses in proinflammatory cytokine productions during endotoxic shock. Also has endocytic properties and rapidly internalizes sPLA2 ligands, which is particularly important for the clearance of extracellular sPLA2s to protect their potent enzymatic activities. The soluble secretory phospholipase A2 receptor form is circulating and acts as a negative regulator of sPLA2 functions by blocking the biological functions of sPLA2-IB/PLA2G1B and sPLA2-X/PLA2G10.
Gene Name:
PLA2R1
Uniprot ID:
P49259
Molecular weight:
168651.0
General function:
Involved in arachidonic acid binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SNCA
Uniprot ID:
A6QQ08
Molecular weight:
8319.0
General function:
Involved in arachidonic acid binding
Specific function:
Required for leukotriene biosynthesis by ALOX5 (5-lipoxygenase). Anchors ALOX5 to the membrane. Binds arachidonic acid, and could play an essential role in the transfer of arachidonic acid to ALOX5. Binds to MK-886, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALOX5AP
Uniprot ID:
Q148F2
Molecular weight:
18028.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four reactions that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process allows the addition of 2 carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) per cycle. Condensing enzyme that acts specifically toward polyunsaturated acyl-CoA with the higher activity toward C18:3(n-6) acyl-CoA. May participate in the production of monounsaturated and of polyunsaturated VLCFAs of different chain lengths that are involved in multiple biological processes as precursors of membrane lipids and lipid mediators (By similarity). In conditions where the essential linoleic and alpha linoleic fatty acids are lacking it is also involved in the synthesis of Mead acid from oleic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ELOVL5
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJD9
Molecular weight:
35377.0
Reactions
Arachidonic acid → Docosatetraenoic aciddetails