Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Bovine Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:49 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:34:49 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000122
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00122
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Glucose
DescriptionD-Glucose, also known as D-GLC or cerelose, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. D-Glucose exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. D-Glucose exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In cattle, D-glucose is involved in the metabolic pathway called the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. D-Glucose is a potentially toxic compound. D-Glucose has been found to be associated with several diseases known as hypoglycemia, familial neonatal, donohue syndrome, and pregnancy; also d-glucose has been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including 3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria and growth hormone deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
D-GLCChEBI
D-GLCPChEBI
DextroseChEBI
GLC-OHChEBI
GlucoseChEBI
Grape sugarChEBI
WURCS=2.0/1,1,0/[a2122h-1x_1-5]/1/ChEBI
Purified glucoseKegg
D-GlucopyranoseKegg
Roferose STHMDB
(+)-GlucoseHMDB
Anhydrous dextroseHMDB, MeSH
CereloseHMDB
Cerelose 2001HMDB
Clearsweet 95HMDB
Clintose LHMDB
Corn sugarHMDB
CPC HydrateHMDB
D(+)-GlucoseHMDB
DextropurHMDB
DextrosolHMDB
GlucodinHMDB
GlucolinHMDB
GoldsugarHMDB
MeritoseHMDB
Staleydex 111HMDB
Staleydex 95mHMDB
Tabfine 097(HS)HMDB
VadexHMDB
D GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (DL)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (L)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (beta-D)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
Glucose monohydrateMeSH, HMDB
Glucose, (alpha-D)-isomerMeSH, HMDB
L GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
L-GlucoseMeSH, HMDB
Dextrose, anhydrousMeSH, HMDB
Monohydrate, glucoseMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number50-99-7
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Myelin sheath
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point146 - 150 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1200.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.24SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Myelin sheath
Biospecimen Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Blood
  • Brain
  • Colostrum
  • Epidermis
  • Eye Lens
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Lung
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Ovary
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
  • Urine
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Adipose TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Adrenal CortexExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Adrenal GlandExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Adrenal MedullaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BladderExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2941.896 +/- 253.114 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5550 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3840-4610 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4196.365 +/- 505.118 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. R. E. Cogginsa...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2800-4600 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2150-2180 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3962 +/- 443 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3290-4070 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4013.191 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3807.813 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4213.0177 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • M.J. Abarghuei, Y...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3560-3680 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2600-3870 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Liker B., L. Bač...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Trabi M, Keller M...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BrainExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Eye LensExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified80098 +/- 14629 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified536 +/- 259 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LungExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified76 - 662 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified62.723 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified376 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified723 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified540 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified548 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified340.62 +/- 65.95 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified288 +/- 32 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified261 +/- 29 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified277.537 (122.116-421.857) uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Esperanza Troyano...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified235 +/- 49 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified250 +/- 41 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified80-150 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Faulkner, A., Cha...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified932.526 +/- 68.274 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • RAJAN SHARMA YUDH...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified139.879 +/- 3.886 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Tommaso R.I. Cata...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified250 +/- 41 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified288 +/- 32 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified261 +/- 29 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1137.903 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1187.859 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified235 +/- 49 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified387.43 +/- 91.21 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified331.24 +/- 84.17 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6310 +/- 850 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified6000 +/- 2470 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified5640 +/- 2870 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified5590 +/- 2350 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified3300 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
OvaryExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified66-1138 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified400 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified580 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified4-18 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified720 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2090 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified400 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified15934 +/- 11188 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified520.41 +/- 94.97 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified763.813 +/- 751.731 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified750 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1100 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2430 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified520 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified523 +/- 130 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified996 +/- 334 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1806 +/- 1305 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified549 +/- 97 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified549 +/- 97 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified754 +/- 403 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified149 +/- 66 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Sub/clinical ketosis
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Heat stress
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4507.207 +/- 212.0386 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Left displaced abomasum (LDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6805.217 +/- 757.122 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Right displaced abomasum (RDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5570 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with bovine somatotropin
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2415.813 +/- 1248.434 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2484.4 +/- 1132.24 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Fed barley-based concentrate diet and silage followed by pasture with concentrate diet
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Fed pasture vs barley-based concentrate
details
HMDB IDHMDB0304632
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB093715
KNApSAcK IDC00001122
Chemspider ID5589
KEGG Compound IDC00031
BioCyc IDD-Glucose
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlucose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5793
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4167
References
Synthesis ReferenceLi, Dalin; Ruan, Yi; Song, Wen; Wang, Yongjun. Improved process for producing glucose. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 4 pp
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Faulkner A, Pollock HT: Changes in the concentration of metabolites in milk from cows fed on diets supplemented with soyabean oil or fatty acids. J Dairy Res. 1989 May;56(2):179-83. [PubMed:2760296 ]
  2. Hurtaud C, Rulquin H, Verite R: Effects of graded duodenal infusions of glucose on yield and composition of milk from dairy cows. 1. Diets based on corn silage. J Dairy Sci. 1998 Dec;81(12):3239-47. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75888-6. [PubMed:9891269 ]
  3. Hurtaud C, Lemosquet S, Rulquin H: Effect of graded duodenal infusions of glucose on yield and composition of milk from dairy cows. 2. Diets based on grass silage. J Dairy Sci. 2000 Dec;83(12):2952-62. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75195-2. [PubMed:11132867 ]
  4. Lehloenya KV, Stein DR, Allen DT, Selk GE, Jones DA, Aleman MM, Rehberger TG, Mertz KJ, Spicer LJ: Effects of feeding yeast and propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield and components, and reproduction*. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2008 Apr;92(2):190-202. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00726.x. [PubMed:18336416 ]
  5. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  6. Jensen RG: The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Feb;85(2):295-350. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74079-4. [PubMed:11913692 ]
  7. Buitenhuis AJ, Sundekilde UK, Poulsen NA, Bertram HC, Larsen LB, Sorensen P: Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk. J Dairy Sci. 2013 May;96(5):3285-95. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5914. Epub 2013 Mar 15. [PubMed:23497994 ]
  8. Scano P, Murgia A, Pirisi FM, Caboni P: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6057-66. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8247. Epub 2014 Aug 6. [PubMed:25108860 ]
  9. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  10. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  11. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cation binding
Specific function:
Glucosylceramidase that catalyzes, within the lysosomal compartment, the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide/GlcCer into free ceramide and glucose. Thereby, plays a central role in the degradation of complex lipids and the turnover of cellular membranes. Through the production of ceramides, participates to the PKC-activated salvage pathway of ceramide formation. Also plays a role in cholesterol metabolism. May either catalyze the glucosylation of cholesterol, through a transglucosylation reaction that transfers glucose from glucosylceramide to cholesterol. The short chain saturated C8:0-GlcCer and the mono-unsaturated C18:0-GlcCer being the most effective glucose donors for that transglucosylation reaction. Under specific conditions, may alternatively catalyze the reverse reaction, transferring glucose from cholesteryl-beta-D-glucoside to ceramide. Finally, may also hydrolyze cholesteryl-beta-D-glucoside to produce D-glucose and cholesterol.
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
Q2KHZ8
Molecular weight:
59855.0
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RU6
Molecular weight:
40827.0
Reactions
Glucose 1-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
YES1
Uniprot ID:
A7MB57
Molecular weight:
60597.0
General function:
Involved in alpha-tubulin binding
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P08037
Molecular weight:
44843.0
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Alpha-Lactosedetails
D-Glucose + Uridine diphosphategalactose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Alpha-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of various hexoses, such as D-glucose, D-glucosamine, D-fructose, D-mannose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, to hexose 6-phosphate (D-glucose 6-phosphate, D-glucosamine 6-phosphate, D-fructose 6-phosphate, D-mannose 6-phosphate and 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate, respectively). Does not phosphorylate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (By similarity). Mediates the initial step of glycolysis by catalyzing phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate (By similarity). Involved in innate immunity and inflammation by acting as a pattern recognition receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan. When released in the cytosol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine component of bacterial peptidoglycan inhibits the hexokinase activity of HK1 and causes its dissociation from mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby activating the NLRP3 inflammasome (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P27595
Molecular weight:
103064.0
Reactions
D-Glucose + Adenosine triphosphate → Glucose 6-phosphate + ADPdetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3) HMW-kininogen inhibits the thrombin- and plasmin-induced aggregation of thrombocytes; (4) the active peptide bradykinin that is released from HMW-kininogen shows a variety of physiological effects: (4A) influence in smooth muscle contraction, (4B) induction of hypotension, (4C) natriuresis and diuresis, (4D) decrease in blood glucose level, (4E) it is a mediator of inflammation and causes (4E1) increase in vascular permeability, (4E2) stimulation of nociceptors (4E3) release of other mediators of inflammation (e.g. prostaglandins), (4F) it has a cardioprotective effect (directly via bradykinin action, indirectly via endothelium-derived relaxing factor action); (5) LMW-kininogen inhibits the aggregation of thrombocytes; (6) LMW-kininogen is in contrast to HMW-kininogen not involved in blood clotting.
Gene Name:
KNG2
Uniprot ID:
P01045
Molecular weight:
68710.0
General function:
Involved in alpha-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein 4-beta-N-ace
Specific function:
Glycosyltransferase that participates in the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the core mannose residues of N-linked glycans. Catalyzes the formation of the GlcNAcbeta1-4 branch on the GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3 arm of the core structure of N-linked glycans. Essential for the production of tri- and tetra-antennary N-linked sugar chains. Involved in glucose transport by mediating SLC2A2/GLUT2 glycosylation, thereby controlling cell-surface expression of SLC2A2 in pancreatic beta cells.
Gene Name:
MGAT4A
Uniprot ID:
O77836
Molecular weight:
61618.0
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-Tyr kinases, through its SH2 domain, and acts as an adapter, mediating the association of the p110 catalytic unit to the plasma membrane. Necessary for the insulin-stimulated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in insulin-sensitive tissues. Plays an important role in signaling in response to FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, KITLG/SCF, KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Likewise, plays a role in ITGB2 signaling. Modulates the cellular response to ER stress by promoting nuclear translocation of XBP1 in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent manner during metabolic overloading in the liver and hence plays a role in glucose tolerance improvement (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIK3R1
Uniprot ID:
P23727
Molecular weight:
83497.0
General function:
Involved in kinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PRKAG3
Uniprot ID:
Q4G3U3
Molecular weight:
51523.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (By similarity). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (By similarity). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (By similarity). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth (By similarity). AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (By similarity). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (By similarity). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53. Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility. Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation. Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization. These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation. Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AKT1
Uniprot ID:
Q01314
Molecular weight:
55748.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3) HMW-kininogen inhibits the thrombin- and plasmin-induced aggregation of thrombocytes; (4) the active peptide bradykinin that is released from HMW-kininogen shows a variety of physiological effects: (4A) influence in smooth muscle contraction, (4B) induction of hypotension, (4C) natriuresis and diuresis, (4D) decrease in blood glucose level, (4E) it is a mediator of inflammation and causes (4E1) increase in vascular permeability, (4E2) stimulation of nociceptors (4E3) release of other mediators of inflammation (e.g. prostaglandins), (4F) it has a cardioprotective effect (directly via bradykinin action, indirectly via endothelium-derived relaxing factor action); (5) LMW-kininogen inhibits the aggregation of thrombocytes; (6) LMW-kininogen is in contrast to HMW-kininogen not involved in blood clotting.
Gene Name:
KNG1
Uniprot ID:
P01044
Molecular weight:
68890.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to synthesize lactose, the major carbohydrate component of milk. In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
LALBA
Uniprot ID:
P00711
Molecular weight:
16247.0
Reactions
D-Glucose + Uridine diphosphategalactose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Alpha-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in actin binding
Specific function:
Myosins are actin-based motor molecules with ATPase activity. Unconventional myosins serve in intracellular movements. Their highly divergent tails are presumed to bind to membranous compartments, which would be moved relative to actin filaments. Involved in glucose transporter recycling in response to insulin by regulating movement of intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. Component of the hair cell's (the sensory cells of the inner ear) adaptation-motor complex. Acts as a mediator of adaptation of mechanoelectrical transduction in stereocilia of vestibular hair cells. Binds phosphoinositides and links the actin cytoskeleton to cellular membranes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MYO1C
Uniprot ID:
Q27966
Molecular weight:
121936.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Lectin that binds to various sugars: mannose = ManNAc > fucose > GlcNAc > glucose = maltose > galactose > lactose > GalNAc. Could play a role in immune defense.
Gene Name:
CL43
Uniprot ID:
P42916
Molecular weight:
33616.0
General function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the sodium-dependent cotransport of myo-inositol (MI) with a Na(+):MI stoichiometry of 2:1. Exclusively responsible for apical MI transport and absorption in intestine. Also can transport D-chiro-inositol (DCI) but not L-fructose. Exhibits stereospecific cotransport of both D-glucose and D-xylose. May induce apoptosis through the TNF-alpha, PDCD1 pathway. May play a role in the regulation of MI concentration in serum, involving reabsorption in at least the proximal tubule of the kidney.
Gene Name:
SLC5A11
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC26
Molecular weight:
73957.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels.
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
O18971
Molecular weight:
57579.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter, which plays a key role in removal of glucose from circulation. Response to insulin is regulated by its intracellular localization: in the absence of insulin, it is efficiently retained intracellularly within storage compartments in muscle and fat cells. Upon insulin stimulation, translocates from these compartments to the cell surface where it transports glucose from the extracellular milieu into the cell.
Gene Name:
SLC2A4
Uniprot ID:
Q27994
Molecular weight:
55084.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Facilitative glucose transporter, which is responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including both pentoses and hexoses. Most important energy carrier of the brain: present at the blood-brain barrier and assures the energy-independent, facilitative transport of glucose into the brain.
Gene Name:
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID:
P27674
Molecular weight:
54132.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Insulin-regulated facilitative hexose transporter that mediates the transport of glucose and fructose. Also able to mediate the transport of dehydroascorbate.
Gene Name:
SLC2A8
Uniprot ID:
P58354
Molecular weight:
51417.0
General function:
Involved in purinergic nucleotide receptor activity, G-
Specific function:
Receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugar coupled to G-proteins. Not activated by ATP, ADP, UTP or ATP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
P2RY14
Uniprot ID:
Q3SX17
Molecular weight:
38697.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Insulin-independent facilitative glucose transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC2A12
Uniprot ID:
Q5J316
Molecular weight:
67468.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Facilitative glucose transporter that can also mediate the uptake of various other monosaccharides across the cell membrane. Mediates the uptake of glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and fucose, and probably also dehydroascorbate. Does not mediate fructose transport.
Gene Name:
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID:
P58352
Molecular weight:
54020.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Functions as a fructose transporter that has only low activity with other monosaccharides. Can mediate the uptake of deoxyglucose, but with low efficiency. Essential for fructose uptake in the small intestine. Plays a role in the regulation of salt uptake and blood pressure in response to dietary fructose. Required for the development of high blood pressure in response to high dietary fructose intake.
Gene Name:
SLC2A5
Uniprot ID:
P58353
Molecular weight:
55393.0
General function:
Involved in receptor binding
Specific function:
Mediates inactivation of the lipoprotein lipase LPL, and thereby plays a role in the regulation of triglyceride clearance from the blood serum and in lipid metabolism. May also play a role in regulating glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Inhibits proliferation, migration, and tubule formation of endothelial cells and reduces vascular leakage (By similarity). Upon heterologous expression, inhibits the adhesion of endothelial cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and inhibits the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions in endothelial cells that have adhered to ANGPTL4-containing ECM (in vitro) (By similarity). Depending on context, may modulate tumor-related angiogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ANGPTL4
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJ51
Molecular weight:
45553.0
General function:
Involved in insulin receptor binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SORBS1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCF1
Molecular weight:
46461.0
General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
Selectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and glycogen deposition in muscle, while not affecting adipocyte glucose metabolism.
Gene Name:
IAPP
Uniprot ID:
Q28207
Molecular weight:
9953.0
General function:
Involved in glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
sglt1
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTR6
Molecular weight:
34774.0
General function:
Intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport
Specific function:
Strongly inhibits glucose induced insulin release from the pancreas.
Gene Name:
CHGA
Uniprot ID:
P05059
Molecular weight:
50015.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC2A3
Uniprot ID:
A2VDL2
Molecular weight:
54119.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC2A6
Uniprot ID:
A1L502
Molecular weight:
54399.0
General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GCG
Uniprot ID:
P01272
Molecular weight:
20944.0
General function:
Involved in glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC5A1
Uniprot ID:
A5HNF2
Molecular weight:
2561.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, activates the transcription of over 40 genes, including erythropoietin, glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, vascular endothelial growth factor, HILPDA, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. Plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Heterodimerizes with ARNT; heterodimer binds to core DNA sequence 5'-TACGTG-3' within the hypoxia response element (HRE) of target gene promoters (By similarity). Activation requires recruitment of transcriptional coactivators such as CREBBP and EP300. Activity is enhanced by interaction with both, NCOA1 or NCOA2. Interaction with redox regulatory protein APEX seems to activate CTAD and potentiates activation by NCOA1 and CREBBP. Involved in the axonal distribution and transport of mitochondria in neurons during hypoxia (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIF1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9XTA5
Molecular weight:
92128.0
General function:
Involved in cytokine activity
Specific function:
Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production.
Gene Name:
IL1B
Uniprot ID:
Q5MAC0
Molecular weight:
13246.0
General function:
Involved in glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SGLT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8MKB7
Molecular weight:
73076.0
General function:
Involved in glucose:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q95JG8
Molecular weight:
20235.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q6UNK6
Molecular weight:
32549.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
E1BK89
Molecular weight:
219131.0
Reactions
Alpha-Lactose + Water → D-Glucose + D-Galactosedetails