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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:19:50 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:57:34 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000123
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00123
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycine
DescriptionGlycine, also known as Gly or aminoessigsaeure, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Glycine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Glycine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Glycine is a potentially toxic compound. Glycine has been found to be associated with several diseases known as crohn's disease, leukemia, phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency, and hyperglycinemia, lactic acidosis, and seizures; also glycine has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including n-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Aminoacetic acidChEBI
AminoessigsaeureChEBI
Aminoethanoic acidChEBI
GChEBI
GlyChEBI
GlycinChEBI
GlycocollChEBI
GlykokollChEBI
GlyzinChEBI
H2N-CH2-COOHChEBI
HglyChEBI
LeimzuckerChEBI
AminoacetateGenerator
AminoethanoateGenerator
2-AminoacetateHMDB
2-Aminoacetic acidHMDB
AciportHMDB
Amino-acetateHMDB
Amino-acetic acidHMDB
GlicoaminHMDB
GlycolixirHMDB
GlycostheneHMDB
Gyn-hydralinHMDB
PadilHMDB
Glycine carbonate (1:1), monosodium saltHMDB
Glycine carbonate (2:1), monopotassium saltHMDB
Glycine sulfate (3:1)HMDB
Glycine, monoammonium saltHMDB
Glycine, monosodium saltHMDB
Glycine, sodium hydrogen carbonateHMDB
Monoammonium salt glycineHMDB
Calcium salt glycineHMDB
Glycine hydrochloride (2:1)HMDB
Glycine phosphate (1:1)HMDB
Glycine, monopotasssium saltHMDB
Monopotasssium salt glycineHMDB
Monosodium salt glycineHMDB
Glycine carbonate (2:1), monolithium saltHMDB
Glycine carbonate (2:1), monosodium saltHMDB
Glycine hydrochlorideHMDB
Glycine, copper saltHMDB
Hydrochloride, glycineHMDB
Salt glycine, monoammoniumHMDB
Acid, aminoaceticHMDB
Cobalt salt glycineHMDB
Copper salt glycineHMDB
Glycine phosphateHMDB
Glycine, calcium saltHMDB
Glycine, calcium salt (2:1)HMDB
Glycine, cobalt saltHMDB
Phosphate, glycineHMDB
Salt glycine, monosodiumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H5NO2
Average Molecular Weight75.0666
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight75.032028409
IUPAC Name2-aminoacetic acid
Traditional Nameglycine
CAS Registry Number56-40-6
SMILES
NCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
InChI KeyDHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point262.2 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility249.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.21HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.4ChemAxon
logS0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.31ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity16 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability6.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-2900000000-0ef96bcf06ce475afcddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-1900000000-1d289099ac79cfb8bb19View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-7910000000-6c972a683dfb75b69331View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0udi-0900000000-ef69e38ee6cebc2ece00View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-2910000000-3215b9e40f20c7b306cdView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9000000000-719b7f248956f13a312dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0900000000-99b4fc43740b21edc786View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1910000000-4cff4d14c73acff9442fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-2900000000-0ef96bcf06ce475afcddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-1900000000-1d289099ac79cfb8bb19View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-4960000000-2c6fa028e985c6019854View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-7910000000-6c972a683dfb75b69331View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2910000000-3215b9e40f20c7b306cdView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0900000000-ef69e38ee6cebc2ece00View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ds-2900000000-ffffed9c78c16a884e4aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004r-3900000000-f288b50b7b6890429811View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-c76140c31c1f120e4b9dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-f0a2cfbefb9fcd9b6c3eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-b8bbfc1276d5adb1ba04View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6001578fc511ba3fefefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-79b2a0a9d93de6a62358View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9290dbe208c4744f4431View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6001578fc511ba3fefefView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-79b2a0a9d93de6a62358View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9290dbe208c4744f4431View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-605b44ac311a9af4bb7aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9000000000-725357e461c898a7451eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-9f3930e66b117ad91dcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-b3336097dddbb5e22871View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-719b7f248956f13a312dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-342ab462db0835abb3d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0ar1-9010000000-9daadc1d169a8530926dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-07y0-9220000000-8c7785f1f3aa8052679fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0ula-9110000000-43ada06fe1b56b4e9fccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-017i-9000000000-fbd78fbb48f082235f42View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-c38d0fb28793438083a9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-Q-Exactive Plus , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-18a7ae48c7b0e15cdf18View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-342ab462db0835abb3d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0ar1-9010000000-9daadc1d169a8530926dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-07y0-9220000000-8c7785f1f3aa8052679fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0ula-9110000000-43ada06fe1b56b4e9fccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-017i-9000000000-fbd78fbb48f082235f42View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-89b2c043a5afe3ebc6f6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b4046e208ee8adb87021View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-222d6c3a1ba6afcd7ea9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Myelin sheath
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Bladder
  • Blood
  • Brain
  • Colostrum
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testis
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Urine
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BladderExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified287 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified326.5 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified162-185 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified513-760 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified398 +/- 65 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified405-428 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BrainExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
EpidermisExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
FibroblastsExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
IntestineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified3201 +/- 499 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified576 +/- 215 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified33 - 1100 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified163 - 855 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified33 - 1109 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified68 +/- 3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified77 +/- 3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified65 +/- 3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified72 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9591.483 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9591.483 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9458.268 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9458.268 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9325.0527 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9325.0527 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified9325.0527 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified342-570 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified368.34 +/- 26.45 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified379.36 +/- 32.68 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified402.07 +/- 29.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified551.88 +/- 18.61 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified1068-1336 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
NeuronExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PancreasExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlateletExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified50-696 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified80-220 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified105 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified158 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified150 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified104 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Hanne Christine B...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified974 +/- 315 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified119.75 +/- 24.37 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified129 +/- 17 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified130 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified165 +/- 55 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified177.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified168 +/- 70 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified189.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified113 +/- 27 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified119.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified113 +/- 27 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified538 +/- 147 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SpleenExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
TestisDetected and Quantified930-1250 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified1247 +/- 251 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Thyroid GlandExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Sub/clinical ketosis
details
BloodDetected and Quantified294 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy positive
details
BloodDetected and Quantified321 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy negative
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Hepatic lipidosis
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified189.78 +/- 69.73 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000123
DrugBank IDDB00145
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000484
KNApSAcK IDC00001361
Chemspider ID730
KEGG Compound IDC00037
BioCyc IDGLY
BiGG ID33610
Wikipedia LinkGlycine
METLIN ID20
PubChem Compound750
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15428
References
Synthesis ReferenceAnslow, Winston K.; King, Harold. Synthesis of glycine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1929), 2163-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  2. Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W: NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis. J Proteome Res. 2012 Feb 3;11(2):1373-81. doi: 10.1021/pr201017n. Epub 2011 Dec 9. [PubMed:22098372 ]
  3. Scano P, Murgia A, Pirisi FM, Caboni P: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6057-66. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8247. Epub 2014 Aug 6. [PubMed:25108860 ]
  4. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  5. Mung D, Li L: Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Feb 25;1001:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.019. Epub 2017 Nov 14. [PubMed:29291809 ]
  6. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  7. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  8. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of serine to glycine accompanied with the production of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an essential intermediate for purine biosynthesis. Serine provides the major source of folate one-carbon in cells by catalyzing the transfer of one carbon from serine to tetrahydrofolate. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway via its role in glycine and tetrahydrofolate metabolism: thymidylate biosynthesis is required to prevent uracil accumulation in mtDNA. Also required for mitochondrial translation by producing 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate providing methyl donors to produce the taurinomethyluridine base at the wobble position of some mitochondrial tRNAs. Associates with mitochondrial DNA. In addition to its role in mitochondria, also plays a role in the deubiquitination of target proteins as component of the BRISC complex: required for IFNAR1 deubiquitination by the BRISC complex.
Gene Name:
SHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZ20
Molecular weight:
55605.0
Reactions
5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Interconversion of serine and glycine.
Gene Name:
SHMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9P9
Molecular weight:
52978.0
Reactions
3-Hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine → Glycine + 4-Trimethylammoniobutanaldetails
L-Serine + Tetrahydrofolic acid → Glycine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Waterdetails
Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Serine → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Glycine + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
Q5EAC2
Molecular weight:
52066.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Glycine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Glutathionedetails
Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine triphosphate + Glycine → Glutathione + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCAT
Uniprot ID:
Q0P5L8
Molecular weight:
45166.0
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Glycine → L-2-Amino-3-oxobutanoic acid + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9. Probably forms a corepressor complex required for activated KRAS-mediated promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) or other tumor-related genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Also required to maintain a transcriptionally repressive state of genes in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Associates at promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) leading to their gene silencing. Promotes tumor growth.
Gene Name:
DNMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q24K09
Molecular weight:
182842.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Glycine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Sarcosinedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJ74
Molecular weight:
48357.0
Reactions
L-Arginine + Glycine → Ornithine + Guanidoacetic aciddetails
Glycine + L-Arginine → Guanidoacetic acid + Orotidylic aciddetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GART
Uniprot ID:
Q59A32
Molecular weight:
107907.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine + Glycine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Glycineamideribotidedetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
A6QLI6
Molecular weight:
71062.0
Reactions
Glycine + Succinyl-CoA → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
Glycine + Succinyl-CoA → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC31
Molecular weight:
65137.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Can metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via transamination to alpha-keto-delta-(NN-dimethylguanidino) valeric acid (DMGV). ADMA is a potent inhibitor of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase, and this activity provides mechanism through which the kidney regulates blood pressure (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AGXT2
Uniprot ID:
Q17QF0
Molecular weight:
57226.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name:
PIPOX
Uniprot ID:
Q29RU9
Molecular weight:
43820.0
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Can conjugate a multitude of substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Catalyzes the conjugation of arylacetic acids with glycine but does not have activity towards any alkyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
O77512
Molecular weight:
33684.0
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate a multitude of substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIR7
Molecular weight:
33907.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGXT
Uniprot ID:
A7MBF1
Molecular weight:
45292.0
Reactions
L-Alanine + Glyoxylic acid → Glycine + Pyruvic aciddetails
Glycine + Pyruvic acid → L-Alanine + Glyoxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Glycine receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels. Channel opening is triggered by extracellular glycine. Channel opening is also triggered by taurine and beta-alanine. Channel characteristics depend on the subunit composition; heteropentameric channels are activated by lower glycine levels and display faster desensitization (By similarity). Plays an important role in the down-regulation of neuronal excitability (PubMed:11178872). Contributes to the generation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Channel activity is potentiated by ethanol (By similarity). Potentiation of channel activity by intoxicating levels of ethanol contribute to the sedative effects of ethanol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P57695
Molecular weight:
52614.0
General function:
Involved in chloride ion binding
Specific function:
Glycine receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels. GLRB does not form ligand-gated ion channels by itself, but is part of heteromeric ligand-gated chloride channels. Channel opening is triggered by extracellular glycine. Heteropentameric channels composed of GLRB and GLRA1 are activated by lower glycine levels than homopentameric GLRA1. Plays an important role in the down-regulation of neuronal excitability. Contributes to the generation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents.
Gene Name:
GLRB
Uniprot ID:
Q9GJS9
Molecular weight:
56039.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Functions as a sodium-dependent amino acid transporter which countertransport protons. Mediates the saturable, pH-sensitive, and electrogenic cotransport of several neutral amino acids including glycine, asparagine, alanine, serine, glutamine and histidine with sodium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC38A5
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9S9
Molecular weight:
51958.0
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Terminates the action of glycine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals. May play a role in regulation of glycine levels in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC6A9
Uniprot ID:
Q28039
Molecular weight:
71318.0
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel acti
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLRA3
Uniprot ID:
Q6WRF9
Molecular weight:
5060.0
General function:
Involved in purinergic nucleotide receptor activity, G-
Specific function:
Receptor for endocannabinoid N-arachidonyl glycine (NAGly). However, conflicting results about the role of NAGly as an agonist are reported. Can also be activated by plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoid agonists. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. May contribute to regulation of the immune system. Is required for normal homeostasis of CD8+ subsets of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) (CD8alphaalpha and CD8alphabeta IELs) in small intstine by supporting preferential migration of CD8 alphaalpha T-cells to intraepithelial compartment over lamina propria compartment, and by mediating their reconstitution into small intestine after bone marrow transplant. Plays a role in hypotensive responses, mediating reduction in intraocular and blood pressure. Mediates NAGly-induced process of reorganization of actin filaments and induction of acrosomal exocytosis.
Gene Name:
GPR18
Uniprot ID:
Q3T0E9
Molecular weight:
37949.0
General function:
Involved in glycine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q27999
Molecular weight:
28037.0
General function:
Involved in endocytosis
Specific function:
Involved in endocytosis.
Gene Name:
NECAP1
Uniprot ID:
Q3T093
Molecular weight:
29597.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Decreases the sensitivity of PDP1 to magnesium ions, and this inhibition is reversed by the polyamine spermine.
Gene Name:
PDPR
Uniprot ID:
O46504
Molecular weight:
98857.0
Reactions
Sarcosine + Water → Formaldehyde + Glycinedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GARS1
Uniprot ID:
A5D7A2
Molecular weight:
83117.0
Reactions
Glycine + Adenosine triphosphate + Glycyl-tRNA → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Glycyl-tRNA(Gly)details