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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:37 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:22:06 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000182
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00182
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Lysine
DescriptionL-Lysine, also known as (S)-lysine or L-lysin, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom. L-Lysine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Lysine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In cattle, L-lysine is involved in the metabolic pathway called the biotin metabolism pathway. L-Lysine is a potentially toxic compound. L-Lysine has been found to be associated with several diseases known as citrullinemia type ii, neonatal-onset, autism, and leukemia; also l-lysine has been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including histidinemia and fumarase deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
(S)-LysineChEBI
6-Ammonio-L-norleucineChEBI
KChEBI
L-2,6-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
L-LysinChEBI
LysChEBI
LysinaChEBI
LysineChEBI
Lysine acidChEBI
LysinumChEBI
2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidKegg
(S)-2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproic acidGenerator
L-2,6-DiaminocaproateGenerator
2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(+)-S-LysineHMDB
(S)-2,6-Diamino-hexanoateHMDB
(S)-2,6-Diamino-hexanoic acidHMDB
(S)-a,e-DiaminocaproateHMDB
(S)-a,e-Diaminocaproic acidHMDB
6-Amino-aminutrinHMDB
6-Amino-L-norleucineHMDB
a-LysineHMDB
alpha-LysineHMDB
AminutrinHMDB
H-Lys-OHHMDB
L-(+)-LysineHMDB
L-2,6-DiainohexanoateHMDB
L-2,6-Diainohexanoic acidHMDB
L-LysHMDB
Acetate, lysineHMDB
EnisylHMDB
Lysine hydrochlorideHMDB
L LysineHMDB
Lysine acetateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
Average Molecular Weight146.1876
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.105527702
IUPAC Name(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
Traditional NameL-lysine
CAS Registry Number56-87-1
SMILES
NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKDXKERNSBIXSRK-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point224.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.8ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.84 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-3910000000-98c565675de67aa87900View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1910000000-87ef8534f592041f50f2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1921000000-84f7815b0f650fa17444View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-001i-9600000000-823408dba509cb204acfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00di-3910000000-4f5578af5e7d8b6c49f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0adi-1921000000-4e56d95e623e792f9e6bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0921000000-eeb49e57bc1a75193058View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-0921000000-ebb902be0f3754225b2fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-3910000000-98c565675de67aa87900View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1910000000-87ef8534f592041f50f2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fdk-3923000000-15b84c2649c1b0455de1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1921000000-84f7815b0f650fa17444View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9600000000-823408dba509cb204acfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-3910000000-4f5578af5e7d8b6c49f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0adi-1921000000-4e56d95e623e792f9e6bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0abi-1900000000-9ad174122e4d6e003eb8View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0089-9100000000-974cc55c9130ed5213ebView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ue9-9700000000-57b24ae819b6ec26bfd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-8900000000-470a0beb4f338ed89bcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-74e9193d9d33c2509bfaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-822c4e78250fffa56e39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-04f9a62a77fb5a37ca22View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-035035ecfa084671479bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-5bb15839f86f4fca0d0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-6c8ef03aa83eb1cab35bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-01ot-0910000000-c182a7dcdbc260666978View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4j-0900000000-6c5f378cef2f14204e15View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-41e1a6499097748934b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0390000000-7270a0b85b9e3f9f6373View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a997e809874357908880View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-2900000000-f64110414f82c93e1fe8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014m-9200000000-33a38e6370811c5ddc82View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-3a8b0b6e62f5c66d3720View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-d5167570d11d77fd541eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a46231bd529176101129View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-f8b9f01b2a9886c51df9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-ace0361476d939043e98View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-5b06b6e9dcf9faf8e89cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-053r-9000000000-2894ef6d7f72ea71688eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-290902f43cf851e8ef5eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-f81193f6b50235ec8147View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-8931d2193adab166d5e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b4825cc64fcb830c6967View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Blood
  • Colostrum
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
  • Urine
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.7 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified94-121 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified45.5 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified152-192 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified58-92 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified60-68 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified88 +/- 15 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified115 +/- 33 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified59 +/- 18 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified7 - 102 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified30 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified26 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified22 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified27.2 +/- 23.7 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified21205.629 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified18 +/- 9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified23 +/- 3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified24 +/- 5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified25 +/- 2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified306-745 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified118.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified163.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified231.8 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified117.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified91-1095 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified122 +/- 26 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified165 +/- 30 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified232 +/- 67 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified177 +/- 79 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified177 +/- 79 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified85-329 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified135 (46.0 - 224) uMNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified105 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified125 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified197 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified116 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified117.91 +/- 31.79 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified2085 +/- 869 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified66 +/- 19 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected and Quantified120-200 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified40 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified64 +/- 15 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with growth-promoting hormones
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected and Quantified64.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy positive
details
BloodDetected and Quantified65.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy negative
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified231.77 +/- 64.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000182
DrugBank IDDB00123
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000474
KNApSAcK IDC00001378
Chemspider ID5747
KEGG Compound IDC00047
BioCyc IDLYS
BiGG ID33655
Wikipedia LinkLysine
METLIN ID5200
PubChem Compound5962
PDB IDLYS
ChEBI ID18019
References
Synthesis ReferenceRothstein, Morton. DL-Lysine-6-C14 and DL-a-aminoadipic acid-6-C14. Biochemical Preparations (1961), 8 85-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  2. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  3. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Nurnberger N, Sigl G, Gronwald W, Wiedemann S, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ: Correlations between milk and plasma levels of amino and carboxylic acids in dairy cows. J Proteome Res. 2013 Nov 1;12(11):5223-32. doi: 10.1021/pr4006537. Epub 2013 Aug 23. [PubMed:23931703 ]
  4. Mung D, Li L: Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Feb 25;1001:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.019. Epub 2017 Nov 14. [PubMed:29291809 ]
  5. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  6. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  7. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 using monomethylated H3 'Lys-9' as substrate. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin at pericentric and telomere regions. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is also required to direct DNA methylation at pericentric repeats. SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional repression and regulation of telomere length. May participate in regulation of higher-order chromatin organization during spermatogenesis. Recruited by the large PER complex to the E-box elements of the circadian target genes such as PER2 itself or PER1, contributes to the conversion of local chromatin to a heterochromatin-like repressive state through H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUV39H2
Uniprot ID:
Q32PH7
Molecular weight:
46551.0
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Protein-lysine N-methyltransferase that monomethylates both histones and non-histone proteins. Specifically monomethylates 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (H4K20me1). H4K20me1 is enriched during mitosis and represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Mainly functions in euchromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the silencing of euchromatic genes. Required for cell proliferation, probably by contributing to the maintenance of proper higher-order structure of DNA during mitosis. Involved in chromosome condensation and proper cytokinesis. Nucleosomes are preferred as substrate compared to free histones. Mediates monomethylation of p53/TP53 at 'Lys-382', leading to repress p53/TP53-target genes. Plays a negative role in TGF-beta response regulation and a positive role in cell migration.
Gene Name:
KMT5A
Uniprot ID:
Q2YDJ8
Molecular weight:
39277.0
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Putative histone methyltransferase that acts as a transcriptional repressor of smooth muscle gene expression. Promotes the transition from differentiated to proliferative smooth muscle by suppressing differentiation and maintaining the proliferative potential of vascular smooth muscle cells. Also plays a role in endothelial cells by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. It is unclear whether it has histone methyltransferase activity in vivo. According to some authors, it does not act as a histone methyltransferase by itself and represses transcription by recruiting EHMT2/G9a. According to others, it possesses histone methyltransferase activity when associated with other proteins and specifically methylates 'Lys-20' of histone H4 in vitro. 'Lys-20' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression.
Gene Name:
PRDM6
Uniprot ID:
A6QPM3
Molecular weight:
63989.0
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
EHMT1
Uniprot ID:
A5PK11
Molecular weight:
138734.0
General function:
Involved in chromatin binding
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3 using monomethylated H3 'Lys-9' as substrate. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (CBX1, CBX3 and/or CBX5) proteins to methylated histones. Mainly functions in heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin at pericentric and telomere regions. H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation is also required to direct DNA methylation at pericentric repeats. SUV39H1 is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 and is involved in many processes, such as repression of MYOD1-stimulated differentiation, regulation of the control switch for exiting the cell cycle and entering differentiation, repression by the PML-RARA fusion protein, BMP-induced repression, repression of switch recombination to IgA and regulation of telomere length. Component of the eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing) complex, a complex that mediates silencing of rDNA in response to intracellular energy status and acts by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes. The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus. Recruited by the large PER complex to the E-box elements of the circadian target genes such as PER2 itself or PER1, contributes to the conversion of local chromatin to a heterochromatin-like repressive state through H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUV39H1
Uniprot ID:
Q2NL30
Molecular weight:
47846.0
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. Catalytic subunit of the PRC2/EED-EZH1 complex, which methylates 'Lys-27' of histone H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. Able to mono-, di- and trimethylate 'Lys-27' of histone H3 to form H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3, respectively. Required for embryonic stem cell derivation and self-renewal, suggesting that it is involved in safeguarding embryonic stem cell identity. Compared to EZH2-containing complexes, it is less abundant in embryonic stem cells, has weak methyltransferase activity and plays a less critical role in forming H3K27me3, which is required for embryonic stem cell identity and proper differentiation.
Gene Name:
EZH1
Uniprot ID:
A7E2Z2
Molecular weight:
85285.0
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates monomethylated 'Lys-20' (H4K20me1) and dimethylated 'Lys-20' (H4K20me2) of histone H4 to produce respectively dimethylated 'Lys-20' (H4K20me2) and trimethylated 'Lys-20' (H4K20me3) and thus regulates transcription and maintenance of genome integrity. In vitro also methylates unmodified 'Lys-20' (H4K20me0) of histone H4 and nucleosomes (By similarity). H4 'Lys-20' trimethylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Mainly functions in pericentric heterochromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the establishment of constitutive heterochromatin in these regions. KMT5B is targeted to histone H3 via its interaction with RB1 family proteins (RB1, RBL1 and RBL2) (By similarity). Plays a role in myogenesis by regulating the expression of target genes, such as EID3. Facilitates TP53BP1 foci formation upon DNA damage and proficient non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-directed DNA repair by catalyzing the di- and trimethylation of 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (By similarity). May play a role in class switch reconbination by catalyzing the di- and trimethylation of 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
KMT5B
Uniprot ID:
Q29RP8
Molecular weight:
44552.0
General function:
Involved in histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that methylates 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-36' of histone H3, 2 specific tags for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Specifically mediates dimethylation of H3 'Lys-36'.
Gene Name:
SETMAR
Uniprot ID:
Q0VD24
Molecular weight:
34254.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Sorting receptor that directs prohormones to the regulated secretory pathway. Acts also as a prohormone processing enzyme in neuro/endocrine cells, removing dibasic residues from the C-terminal end of peptide hormone precursors after initial endoprotease cleavage.
Gene Name:
CPE
Uniprot ID:
P04836
Molecular weight:
53309.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPB1
Uniprot ID:
P00732
Molecular weight:
47348.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in lysine degradation. The N-terminal and the C-terminal contain lysine-oxoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
A8E657
Molecular weight:
102084.0
Reactions
L-Lysine + NADPH + Oxoglutaric acid → Saccharopine + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Active on elastin and collagen substrates.
Gene Name:
LOXL1
Uniprot ID:
Q95L39
Molecular weight:
64496.0
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. Regulator of Ras expression. May play a role in tumor suppression. Plays a role in the aortic wall architecture (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LOX
Uniprot ID:
P33072
Molecular weight:
47115.0
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
May modulate the formation of a collagenous extracellular matrix.
Gene Name:
LOXL4
Uniprot ID:
Q8MJ24
Molecular weight:
84050.0
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Part of a complex composed of PLOD1, P3H3 and P3H4 that catalyzes hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagen alpha chains and is required for normal assembly and cross-linkling of collagen fibrils (By similarity). Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens (By similarity). These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
O77588
Molecular weight:
83487.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-48'-, as well as 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. Participates in the regulation of transepithelial sodium transport in renal cells. May be involved in cell growth arrest.
Gene Name:
UBE2E3
Uniprot ID:
Q2T9X7
Molecular weight:
22913.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins. Functions in the E6/E6-AP-induced ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Promotes ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of FLT3.
Gene Name:
UBE2L6
Uniprot ID:
A5PJC4
Molecular weight:
17825.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 from the UBA3-NAE1 E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. The specific interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RBX2, but not RBX1, suggests that the RBX2-UBE2F complex neddylates specific target proteins, such as CUL5.
Gene Name:
UBE2F
Uniprot ID:
Q1RMW1
Molecular weight:
21133.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 that specifically acts with HECT-type and RBR family E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. Does not function with most RING-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases because it lacks intrinsic E3-independent reactivity with lysine: in contrast, it has activity with the RBR family E3 enzymes, such as PRKN and ARIH1, that function like function like RING-HECT hybrids. Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination. Involved in the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. Down-regulated during the S-phase it is involved in progression through the cell cycle. Regulates nuclear hormone receptors transcriptional activity. May play a role in myelopoiesis.
Gene Name:
UBE2L3
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHP1
Molecular weight:
17862.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
The UBE2V1-UBE2N and UBE2V2-UBE2N heterodimers catalyze the synthesis of non-canonical 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. This type of polyubiquitination does not lead to protein degradation by the proteasome. Mediates transcriptional activation of target genes. Plays a role in the control of progress through the cell cycle and differentiation. Plays a role in the error-free DNA repair pathway and contributes to the survival of cells after DNA damage. Acts together with the E3 ligases, HLTF and SHPRH, in the 'Lys-63'-linked poly-ubiquitination of PCNA upon genotoxic stress, which is required for DNA repair. Appears to act together with E3 ligase RNF5 in the 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of JKAMP thereby regulating JKAMP function by decreasing its association with components of the proteasome and ERAD. Promotes TRIM5 capsid-specific restriction activity and the UBE2V1-UBE2N heterodimer acts in concert with TRIM5 to generate 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains which activate the MAP3K7/TAK1 complex which in turn results in the induction and expression of NF-kappa-B and MAPK-responsive inflammatory genes. Together with RNF135 and UB2V1, catalyzes the viral RNA-dependent 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I/DDX58 to activate the downstream signaling pathway that leads to interferon beta production (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UBE2N
Uniprot ID:
Q0P5K3
Molecular weight:
17138.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'-, as well as 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Cooperates with the E2 CDC34 and the SCF(FBXW11) E3 ligase complex for the polyubiquitination of NFKBIA leading to its subsequent proteasomal degradation. Acts as an initiator E2, priming the phosphorylated NFKBIA target at positions 'Lys-21' and/or 'Lys-22' with a monoubiquitin. Ubiquitin chain elongation is then performed by CDC34, building ubiquitin chains from the UBE2D3-primed NFKBIA-linked ubiquitin. Acts also as an initiator E2, in conjunction with RNF8, for the priming of PCNA. Monoubiquitination of PCNA, and its subsequent polyubiquitination, are essential events in the operation of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway that is activated after DNA damage caused by UV or chemical agents during S-phase. Associates with the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 ligase complex to perform ubiquitination at DNA damage sites following ionizing radiation leading to DNA repair. Targets DAPK3 for ubiquitination which influences promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear body (PML-NB) formation in the nucleus. In conjunction with the MDM2 and TOPORS E3 ligases, functions ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Supports NRDP1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of ERBB3 and of BRUCE which triggers apoptosis. In conjunction with the CBL E3 ligase, targets EGFR for polyubiquitination at the plasma membrane as well as during its internalization and transport on endosomes. In conjunction with the STUB1 E3 quality control E3 ligase, ubiquitinates unfolded proteins to catalyze their immediate destruction. Together with RNF135, catalyzes the viral RNA-dependent 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I/DDX58 to activate the downstream signaling pathway that leads to interferon beta production (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UBE2D3
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCF7
Molecular weight:
16745.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 from the UBA3-NAE1 E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. The specific interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RBX1, but not RBX2, suggests that the RBX1-UBE2M complex neddylates specific target proteins, such as CUL1, CUL2, CUL3 and CUL4. Involved in cell proliferation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UBE2M
Uniprot ID:
A3KN22
Molecular weight:
20900.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme that transfers ubiquitin to MAEA, a core component of the CTLH E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Capable, in vitro, to ubiquitinate histone H2A.
Gene Name:
UBE2H
Uniprot ID:
Q32LN1
Molecular weight:
20655.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Protects the body from potent vasoactive and inflammatory peptides containing C-terminal Arg or Lys (such as kinins or anaphylatoxins) which are released into the circulation.
Gene Name:
CPN1
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJ83
Molecular weight:
52669.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Acts as an essential factor of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis. Acts by initiating 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains on APC/C substrates, leading to the degradation of APC/C substrates by the proteasome and promoting mitotic exit.
Gene Name:
UBE2C
Uniprot ID:
Q32PA5
Molecular weight:
19608.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination.
Gene Name:
UBE2Q2
Uniprot ID:
Q32L27
Molecular weight:
38717.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In association with the E3 enzyme BRE1 (RNF20 and/or RNF40), it plays a role in transcription regulation by catalyzing the monoubiquitination of histone H2B at 'Lys-120' to form H2BK120ub1. H2BK120ub1 gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation, elongation by RNA polymerase II, telomeric silencing, and is also a prerequisite for H3K4me and H3K79me formation. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-11'-, as well as 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. Required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA. Associates to the E3 ligase RAD18 to form the UBE2B-RAD18 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in mono-ubiquitination of DNA-associated PCNA on 'Lys-164'. May be involved in neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
UBE2B
Uniprot ID:
Q32P99
Molecular weight:
17312.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Mediates the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. Functions in the E6/E6-AP-induced ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Mediates ubiquitination of PEX5 and autoubiquitination of STUB1 and TRAF6. Involved in the signal-induced conjugation and subsequent degradation of NFKBIA, FBXW2-mediated GCM1 ubiquitination and degradation, MDM2-dependent degradation of p53/TP53 and the activation of MAVS in the mitochondria by DDX58/RIG-I in response to viral infection. Essential for viral activation of IRF3.
Gene Name:
UBE2D2
Uniprot ID:
Q1RMX2
Molecular weight:
16735.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins. Seems to function in the selective degradation of misfolded membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ERAD).
Gene Name:
UBE2J2
Uniprot ID:
Q2TA03
Molecular weight:
28848.0
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
KARS
Uniprot ID:
Q3T0N2
Molecular weight:
71321.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Lysine + tRNA(Lys) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Lysyl-tRNA(Lys)details
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD).
Gene Name:
UBE2G2
Uniprot ID:
Q17QG5
Molecular weight:
18552.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro catalyzes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination. Mediates the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. Functions in the E6/E6-AP-induced ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Mediates ubiquitination of PEX5 and auto-ubiquitination of STUB1, TRAF6 and TRIM63/MURF1. Ubiquitinates STUB1-associated HSP90AB1 in vitro. Lacks inherent specificity for any particular lysine residue of ubiquitin. Essential for viral activation of IRF3. Mediates polyubiquitination of CYP3A4.
Gene Name:
UBE2D1
Uniprot ID:
Q2TA10
Molecular weight:
16602.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. Catalyzes monoubiquitination. Involved in mitomycin-C (MMC)-induced DNA repair: acts as a specific E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme for the Fanconi anemia complex by associating with E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase FANCL and catalyzing monoubiquitination of FANCD2, a key step in the DNA damage pathway. Also mediates monoubiquitination of FANCL and FANCI. May contribute to ubiquitination and degradation of BRCA1. In vitro able to promote polyubiquitination using all 7 ubiquitin Lys residues, but may prefer 'Lys-11'-, 'Lys-27'-, 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination.
Gene Name:
UBE2T
Uniprot ID:
Q32LD2
Molecular weight:
21765.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. In vitro, in the presence or in the absence of BRCA1-BARD1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex, catalyzes the synthesis of 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitin chains. Does not transfer ubiquitin directly to but elongates monoubiquitinated substrate protein. Mediates the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins, such as the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded lumenal proteins. Ubiquitinates huntingtin. May mediate foam cell formation by the suppression of apoptosis of lipid-bearing macrophages through ubiquitination and subsequence degradation of p53/TP53 (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in ubiquitination and proteolytic processing of NF-kappa-B; in vitro supports ubiquitination of NFKB1.
Gene Name:
UBE2K
Uniprot ID:
P61085
Molecular weight:
22407.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accepts ubiquitin from the E1 complex and catalyzes its covalent attachment to other proteins. Catalyzes 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination. Acts as an essential factor of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis. Acts by specifically elongating 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains initiated by the E2 enzyme UBE2C/UBCH10 on APC/C substrates, enhancing the degradation of APC/C substrates by the proteasome and promoting mitotic exit. Also acts by elongating ubiquitin chains initiated by the E2 enzyme UBE2D1/UBCH5 in vitro; it is however unclear whether UBE2D1/UBCH5 acts as an E2 enzyme for the APC/C in vivo. Also involved in ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of VHL, resulting in an accumulation of HIF1A. In vitro able to promote polyubiquitination using all 7 ubiquitin Lys residues, except 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination.
Gene Name:
UBE2S
Uniprot ID:
Q1RML1
Molecular weight:
23896.0
General function:
Involved in biotinidase activity
Specific function:
Catalytic release of biotin from biocytin, the product of biotin-dependent carboxylases degradation.
Gene Name:
BTD
Uniprot ID:
A6QQ07
Molecular weight:
58353.0
Reactions
Biocytin + Water → Biotin + L-Lysinedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Plasma glycoprotein that binds a number of ligands such as heme, heparin, heparan sulfate, thrombospondin, plasminogen, and divalent metal ions. Inhibits rosette formation. Acts as an adapter protein and implicated in regulating many processes such as immune complex and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Mediates clearance of necrotic cells through enhancing the phagocytosis of necrotic cells in a heparan sulfate-dependent pathway. This process can be regulated by the presence of certain HRG ligands such as heparin and zinc ions. Binds to IgG subclasses of immunoglobins containing kappa and lambda light chains with different affinities regulating their clearance and inhibiting the formation of insoluble immune complexes. Tethers plasminogen to the cell surface. Binds T-cells and alters the cell morphology. Modulates angiogenesis by blocking the CD6-mediated antiangiongenic effect of thrombospondins, THBS1 and THBS2 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HRG
Uniprot ID:
P33433
Molecular weight:
44471.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC7A3
Uniprot ID:
A0JNF2
Molecular weight:
67045.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Histone methyltransferase that specifically monomethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3. H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Plays a central role in the transcriptional activation of genes.
Gene Name:
SETD7
Uniprot ID:
F1MUT0
Molecular weight:
40648.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + L-Lysine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N6,N6,N6-Trimethyl-L-lysinedetails