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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:31:07 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:44:30 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000464
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00464
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCalcium
DescriptionCalcium, also known as ca(2+) or calcium ion, belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom. Calcium exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and possibly neutral molecule. Calcium exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Calcium is a potentially toxic compound. Calcium has been found to be associated with several diseases known as sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, bartter syndrome, type 3, mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency, and bartter syndrome, type 5, antenatal, transient; also calcium has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including primary hypomagnesemia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Ca(2+)ChEBI
Ca2+ChEBI
CALCIUM ionChEBI
Calcium, doubly charged positive ionChEBI
Calcium(2+)Kegg
CaHMDB
Calcium elementHMDB
Chemical FormulaCa
Average Molecular Weight40.078
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight39.962591155
IUPAC Namecalcium(2+) ion
Traditional Namecalcium(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-70-2
SMILES
[Ca++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Ca/q+2
InChI KeyBHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point850 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-382f6681443a5ba4aff6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-b897a59dd4cd48dea0d1View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Liver
  • Milk
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Testis
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified880 +/- 40 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2500 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3700 +/- 30 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2228 +/- 221 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2485.154-4037.128 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Arthur K. Anderso...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2495.134 +/- 99.805 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. R. E. Cogginsa...
details
LiverDetected and Quantified17 +/- 8 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified35680.423 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified32187.235 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30440.641 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30440.641 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30440.641 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30440.641 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified29692.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified35680.423 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31937.721 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified35680.423 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified29941.614 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified29941.614 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31724.14 +/- 544.19 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30939.668 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified40721.59 +/- 575.88 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30939.668 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified26506.56 +/- 1132.54 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified30939.668 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified27949.50 +/- 653.98 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified28195.0197 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified36377.065 +/- 598.58 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified28195.0197 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified27945.506 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified28943.56 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified28943.56 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified26000 - 32000 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified30440.641 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Park, Y. W; Juáre...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified34430 +/- 3490 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified28909 +/- 2255 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified26132 +/- 1964 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified25529 +/- 803 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified32909 +/- 2255 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified29692.100 - 30939.668 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified29941.614 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified28300 - 54200 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31937.721 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31937.721 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31189.181 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified50900.744 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified25200.858 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified35430.91 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31937.721 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified31189.181 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified371 +/- 722 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified931.0 +/- 27.0 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1000 - 4000 uMAdultBoth
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified13 +/- 4 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified770 +/- 20 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Left displaced abomasum (LDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified770 +/- 60 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Right displaced abomasum (RDA)
    • Abdullah BASOGLU,...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2550 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Treated with bovine somatotropin
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000464
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB003513
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID266
KEGG Compound IDC00076
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33764
Wikipedia LinkCalcium
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound271
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID29108
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Zhang P, Allen JC: A novel dialysis procedure measuring free Zn2+ in bovine milk and plasma. J Nutr. 1995 Jul;125(7):1904-10. doi: 10.1093/jn/125.7.1904. [PubMed:7616307 ]
  2. Gaucheron F: The minerals of milk. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Jul-Aug;45(4):473-83. doi: 10.1051/rnd:2005030. [PubMed:16045895 ]
  3. Tsioulpas A, Grandison AS, Lewis MJ: Changes in physical properties of bovine milk from the colostrum period to early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Nov;90(11):5012-7. doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0192. [PubMed:17954740 ]
  4. Jensen HB, Poulsen NA, Andersen KK, Hammershoj M, Poulsen HD, Larsen LB: Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor, or noncoagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Dec;95(12):6905-17. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5675. Epub 2012 Oct 3. [PubMed:23040012 ]
  5. Gaucheron F: Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5 Suppl 1):400S-9S. [PubMed:22081685 ]
  6. Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W. (2007). Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W.. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Res.(2007) 68:88-113 doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.013. Small Ruminant Research.
  7. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  8. USDA Food Composition Databases [Link]
  9. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 217 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
Gene Name:
ARSA
Uniprot ID:
Q08DD1
Molecular weight:
53807.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q29437
Molecular weight:
84757.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPD2
Uniprot ID:
A6QLU1
Molecular weight:
80763.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTK6
Molecular weight:
84500.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
O46406
Molecular weight:
84883.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) into heparan sulfate side chains and core proteoglycans. Participates in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and remodeling. Selectively cleaves the linkage between a glucuronic acid unit and an N-sulfo glucosamine unit carrying either a 3-O-sulfo or a 6-O-sulfo group. Can also cleave the linkage between a glucuronic acid unit and an N-sulfo glucosamine unit carrying a 2-O-sulfo group, but not linkages between a glucuronic acid unit and a 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid moiety. Essentially inactive at neutral pH but becomes active under acidic conditions such as during tumor invasion and in inflammatory processes. Facilitates cell migration associated with metastasis, wound healing and inflammation. Enhances shedding of syndecans. Acts as procoagulant by enhancing the generation of activated factor X/F10 in the presence of tissue factor/TF and activated factor VII/F7. Independent of its enzymatic activity, increases cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Enhances AKT1/PKB phosphorylation, possibly via interaction with a lipid raft-resident receptor. Plays a role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enhances angiogenesis through up-regulation of SRC-mediated activation of VEGF. Implicated in hair follicle inner root sheath differentiation and hair homeostasis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HPSE
Uniprot ID:
Q9MYY0
Molecular weight:
61077.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P57709
Molecular weight:
104780.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Canalicular ectonucleoside NTPDase responsible for the main hepatic NTPDase activity. Ectonucleoside NTPDases catalyze the hydrolysis of gamma- and beta-phosphate residues of nucleotides, playing a central role in concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Has activity toward ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP, but not toward AMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENTPD8
Uniprot ID:
A0JND9
Molecular weight:
53240.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
O18956
Molecular weight:
58114.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen (PubMed:22387132). Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCY0
Molecular weight:
109290.0
General function:
Involved in dynactin binding
Specific function:
Positively regulates the activity of the minus-end directed microtubule motor protein dynein. May enhance dynein-mediated microtubule sliding by targeting dynein to the microtubule plus end. Required for several dynein- and microtubule-dependent processes such as the maintenance of Golgi integrity, the peripheral transport of microtubule fragments and the coupling of the nucleus and centrosome. Required during brain development for the proliferation of neuronal precursors and the migration of newly formed neurons from the ventricular/subventricular zone toward the cortical plate. Neuronal migration involves a process called nucleokinesis, whereby migrating cells extend an anterior process into which the nucleus subsequently translocates. During nucleokinesis dynein at the nuclear surface may translocate the nucleus towards the centrosome by exerting force on centrosomal microtubules. Also required for proper activation of Rho GTPases and actin polymerization at the leading edge of locomoting cerebellar neurons and postmigratory hippocampal neurons in response to calcium influx triggered via NMDA receptors. May also play a role in other forms of cell locomotion including the migration of fibroblasts during wound healing (By similarity). Non-catalytic subunit of an acetylhydrolase complex which inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) by removing the acetyl group at the SN-2 position. Required for pronuclear migration during fertilization. Required for dynein recruitment to microtubule plus ends and BICD2-bound cargos (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PAFAH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P43033
Molecular weight:
46613.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GNS
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZH9
Molecular weight:
62776.0
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. May participate in synthesis of oncofetal fibronectin. Has activity toward Muc1a, Muc2, EA2 and fibronectin peptides (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GALNT6
Uniprot ID:
Q5EA41
Molecular weight:
71138.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. Has a broad spectrum of substrates for peptides such as EA2, Muc5AC, Muc1a, Muc1b and Muc7.
Gene Name:
GALNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q07537
Molecular weight:
64192.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FAH
Uniprot ID:
A5PKH3
Molecular weight:
46156.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Cleaves P(1)-P(3)-bis(5'-adenosyl) triphosphate (Ap3A) to yield AMP and ADP. Can also hydrolyze P(1)-P(4)-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate (Ap4A), but has extremely low activity with ATP. Modulates transcriptional activation by CTNNB1 and thereby contributes to regulate the expression of genes essential for cell proliferation and survival, such as CCND1 and BIRC5. Plays a role in the induction of apoptosis via SRC and AKT1 signaling pathways. Inhibits MDM2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53/TP53 and thereby plays a role in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis depends on the ability of FHIT to bind P(1)-P(3)-bis(5'-adenosyl) triphosphate or related compounds, but does not require its catalytic activity. Functions as tumor suppressor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FHIT
Uniprot ID:
Q1KZG4
Molecular weight:
16951.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May have hydrolase activity.
Gene Name:
FAHD2
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIB0
Molecular weight:
34556.0
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Probable mitochondrial acylpyruvase which is able to hydrolyze acetylpyruvate and fumarylpyruvate in vitro. Also has oxaloacetate decarboxylase activity.
Gene Name:
FAHD1
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJ98
Molecular weight:
24499.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Regulates central hypertension through its calcium-modulated preference to cleave N-terminal acidic residues from peptides such as angiotensin II.
Gene Name:
ENPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q32LQ0
Molecular weight:
109801.0
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GALNT6
Uniprot ID:
A6H6Z5
Molecular weight:
71152.0
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Gene Name:
F13A1
Uniprot ID:
P12260
Molecular weight:
22745.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MMP2
Uniprot ID:
A6QPN5
Molecular weight:
73834.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity.
Gene Name:
DGKA
Uniprot ID:
A0JN54
Molecular weight:
82672.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser-652'. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at 'Ser-180', which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. Participates in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Phosphorylates SLC2A1/GLUT1, promoting glucose uptake by SLC2A1/GLUT1. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCB
Uniprot ID:
P05126
Molecular weight:
76790.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays diverse roles in neuronal cells and eye tissues, such as regulation of the neuronal receptors GRIA4/GLUR4 and GRIN1/NMDAR1, modulation of receptors and neuronal functions related to sensitivity to opiates, pain and alcohol, mediation of synaptic function and cell survival after ischemia, and inhibition of gap junction activity after oxidative stress. Binds and phosphorylates GRIA4/GLUR4 glutamate receptor and regulates its function by increasing plasma membrane-associated GRIA4 expression. In primary cerebellar neurons treated with the agonist 3,5-dihyidroxyphenylglycine, functions downstream of the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM5/MGLUR5 and phosphorylates GRIN1/NMDAR1 receptor which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. May be involved in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but may be not necessary for the process of synaptic plasticity. May be involved in desensitization of mu-type opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the spinal cord, and may be critical for the development and/or maintenance of morphine-induced reinforcing effects in the limbic forebrain. May modulate the functionality of mu-type-opioid receptors by participating in a signaling pathway which leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of opioid receptors. May also contributes to chronic morphine-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms and contributes to the maintenance of the allodynia pain produced by peripheral inflammation. Plays an important role in initial sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, by mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol as well as the effects of this drug on the GABA(A) receptors. During and after cerebral ischemia modulate neurotransmission and cell survival in synaptic membranes, and is involved in insulin-induced inhibition of necrosis, an important mechanism for minimizing ischemic injury. Required for the elimination of multiple climbing fibers during innervation of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum. Is activated in lens epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide treatment, and phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1/CX43), resulting in disassembly of GJA1 gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity which could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress. Phosphorylates p53/TP53 and promotes p53/TP53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Involved in the phase resetting of the cerebral cortex circadian clock during temporally restricted feeding. Stabilizes the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by interfering with its ubiquitination, thus suppressing its degradation, resulting in phase resetting of the cerebral cortex clock.
Gene Name:
PRKCG
Uniprot ID:
P05128
Molecular weight:
77156.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascades involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Depending on the cell type, is involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation. In cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Depending on the cell type, exhibits anti-apoptotic function and protects cells from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, or mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. During chemokine-induced CD4(+) T cell migration, phosphorylates CDC42-guanine exchange factor DOCK8 resulting in its dissociation from LRCH1 and the activation of GTPase CDC42. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B-ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF-kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
P04409
Molecular weight:
76837.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Stimulates retinal guanylyl cyclase when free calcium ions concentration is low and inhibits guanylyl cyclase when free calcium ions concentration is elevated (PubMed:7520254, PubMed:8626484, PubMed:9651312, PubMed:26703466). This Ca(2+)-sensitive regulation of retinal guanylyl cyclase is a key event in recovery of the dark state of rod photoreceptors following light exposure (PubMed:7520254, PubMed:8626484). May be involved in cone photoreceptor light response and recovery of response in bright light (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GUCA1A
Uniprot ID:
P46065
Molecular weight:
23510.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of glucosidase II that cleaves sequentially the 2 innermost alpha-1,3-linked glucose residues from the Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide precursor of immature glycoproteins (By similarity). Required for efficient PKD1/Polycystin-1 biogenesis and trafficking to the plasma membrane of the primary cilia (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCSH
Uniprot ID:
Q28034
Molecular weight:
60151.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of the calcium-regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease which catalyzes limited proteolysis of substrates involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and signal transduction.
Gene Name:
CAPNS1
Uniprot ID:
P13135
Molecular weight:
27931.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of calcineurin, a calcium-dependent, calmodulin stimulated protein phosphatase. Confers calcium sensitivity.
Gene Name:
PPP3R2
Uniprot ID:
Q2TBI5
Molecular weight:
19548.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
C1s B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1r to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system. C1r activates C1s so that it can, in turn, activate C2 and C4 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
C1S
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCX1
Molecular weight:
76609.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to synthesize lactose, the major carbohydrate component of milk. In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
LALBA
Uniprot ID:
P00711
Molecular weight:
16247.0
General function:
Involved in actin binding
Specific function:
Serum endocuclease secreted into body fluids by a wide variety of exocrine and endocrine organs (PubMed:4976790, PubMed:5166750, PubMed:3352748, PubMed:2395459). Expressed by non-hematopoietic tissues and preferentially cleaves protein-free DNA (By similarity). Among other functions, seems to be involved in cell death by apoptosis (PubMed:2395459). Binds specifically to G-actin and blocks actin polymerization (PubMed:2395459). Together with DNASE1L3, plays a key role in degrading neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) (By similarity). NETs are mainly composed of DNA fibers and are released by neutrophils to bind pathogens during inflammation (By similarity). Degradation of intravascular NETs by DNASE1 and DNASE1L3 is required to prevent formation of clots that obstruct blood vessels and cause organ damage following inflammation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P00639
Molecular weight:
31346.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium.
Gene Name:
F7
Uniprot ID:
P22457
Molecular weight:
48961.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ARSK
Uniprot ID:
Q148F3
Molecular weight:
61361.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease.
Gene Name:
CAPN3
Uniprot ID:
P51186
Molecular weight:
94603.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Ubiquitous endoprotease within constitutive secretory pathways capable of cleavage at the RX(K/R)R consensus motif (PubMed:7806563). Mediates processing of TGFB1, an essential step in TGF-beta-1 activation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FURIN
Uniprot ID:
Q28193
Molecular weight:
87251.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that participates in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by converting factor X to its active form in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, phospholipids, and factor VIIIa.
Gene Name:
F9
Uniprot ID:
P00741
Molecular weight:
52046.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Stimulates two retinal guanylyl cyclases (GCs) GUCY2D and GUCY2F when free calcium ions concentration is low, and inhibits GUCY2D and GUCY2F when free calcium ions concentration is elevated (PubMed:7665624). This Ca(2+)-sensitive regulation of GCs is a key event in recovery of the dark state of rod photoreceptors following light exposure (PubMed:9651312). May be involved in cone photoreceptor response and recovery of response in bright light (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GUCA1B
Uniprot ID:
P51177
Molecular weight:
23728.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting.
Gene Name:
F10
Uniprot ID:
P00743
Molecular weight:
54510.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins during protein synthesis.
Gene Name:
FKBP10
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJ89
Molecular weight:
64484.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of calcineurin, a calcium-dependent, calmodulin stimulated protein phosphatase. Confers calcium sensitivity.
Gene Name:
PPP3R1
Uniprot ID:
P63099
Molecular weight:
19300.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Acts upon elastin.
Gene Name:
CELA1
Uniprot ID:
Q28153
Molecular weight:
28518.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease which catalyzes limited proteolysis of substrates involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and signal transduction.
Gene Name:
CAPN1
Uniprot ID:
Q27970
Molecular weight:
82207.0
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins during protein synthesis.
Gene Name:
FKBP9
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJC8
Molecular weight:
63535.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays important roles in the innate immune response as effector of glucocorticoid-mediated responses and regulator of the inflammatory process. Has anti-inflammatory activity. Plays a role in glucocorticoid-mediated down-regulation of the early phase of the inflammatory response. Promotes resolution of inflammation and wound healing (By similarity). Functions at least in part by activating the formyl peptide receptors and downstream signaling cascades. Promotes chemotaxis of granulocytes and monocytes via activation of the formyl peptide receptors (By similarity). Contributes to the adaptive immune response by enhancing signaling cascades that are triggered by T-cell activation, regulates differentiation and proliferation of activated T-cells. Promotes the differentiation of T-cells into Th1 cells and negatively regulates differentiation into Th2 cells (By similarity). Has no effect on unstimulated T-cells. Promotes rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, cell polarization and cell migration. Negatively regulates hormone exocytosis via activation of the formyl peptide receptors and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton (By similarity). Has high affinity for Ca(2+) and can bind up to eight Ca(2+) ions (By similarity). Displays Ca(2+)-dependent binding to phospholipid membranes (By similarity). Plays a role in the formation of phagocytic cups and phagosomes. Plays a role in phagocytosis by mediating the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between phagosomes and the actin cytoskeleton (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ANXA1
Uniprot ID:
P46193
Molecular weight:
38952.0
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in intracellular signal transduction mediated by cytokines and growth factors. When associated with STAM it suppresses DNA signaling upon stimulation by IL-2 and GM-CSF. Could be a direct effector of PI3-kinase in vesicular pathway via early endosomes and may regulate trafficking to early and late endosomes by recruiting clathrin. May concentrate ubiquitinated receptors within clathrin-coated regions. Involved in down-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase via multivesicular body (MVBs) when complexed with STAM (ESCRT-0 complex). The ESCRT-0 complex binds ubiquitin and acts as sorting machinery that recognizes ubiquitinated receptors and transfers them to further sequential lysosomal sorting/trafficking processes. May contribute to the efficient recruitment of SMADs to the activin receptor complex. Involved in receptor recycling via its association with the CART complex, a multiprotein complex required for efficient transferrin receptor recycling but not for EGFR degradation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HGS
Uniprot ID:
Q0V8S0
Molecular weight:
85786.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease which catalyzes limited proteolysis of substrates involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and signal transduction. Proteolytically cleaves MYOC at 'Arg-226'. Proteolytically cleaves CPEB3 following neuronal stimulation which abolishes CPEB3 translational repressor activity, leading to translation of CPEB3 target mRNAs.
Gene Name:
CAPN2
Uniprot ID:
Q27971
Molecular weight:
79935.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Receptor for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger that mediates the release of intracellular calcium (PubMed:11584008). This release is regulated by cAMP both dependently and independently of PKA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ITPR2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WN96
Molecular weight:
307820.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Intracellular channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum following stimulation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Involved in the regulation of epithelial secretion of electrolytes and fluid through the interaction with AHCYL1 Plays a role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cytoplasmic calcium released from the ER triggers apoptosis by the activation of CaM kinase II, eventually leading to the activation of downstream apoptosis pathways.
Gene Name:
ITPR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9TU34
Molecular weight:
308318.0

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 217 proteins in total.