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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:39:20 UTC
Update Date2020-05-21 16:29:08 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000973
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00973
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrogen phosphate
DescriptionPhosphoric acid, also known as phosphate or [po(OH)3], belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal phosphates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a phosphate as its largest oxoanion. Phosphoric acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Phosphoric acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Phosphoric acid is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[PO(OH)3]ChEBI
Acide phosphoriqueChEBI
Acidum phosphoricumChEBI
H3PO4ChEBI
Orthophosphoric acidChEBI
PhosphorsaeureloesungenChEBI
PhosphorsaeureChEBI
Phosphoric acidKegg
OrthophosphateGenerator
Concise etchantMeSH
CondactMeSH
K-EtchantMeSH
Uni-etchMeSH
PhosphateChEBI
Diphosphate tetrasodiumHMDB
MarphosHMDB
NFBHMDB
ortho- Phosphoric acidHMDB
Phosphoric acid (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
Sodium pyrophosphateHMDB
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrateHMDB
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate biochemicaHMDB
SonacHMDB
Tetra-sodium pyrophosphateHMDB
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 10-hydrateHMDB
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate decahydrateHMDB
White phosphoric acidHMDB
Hydrogen phosphoric acidGenerator
Dihydrogen phosphateHMDB
Hydrogen phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaH3O4P
Average Molecular Weight97.9952
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight97.976895096
IUPAC Namephosphoric acid
Traditional Namephosphoric acid
CAS Registry Number7664-38-2
SMILES
OP(O)(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)
InChI KeyNBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal phosphates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a phosphate as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal phosphates
Direct ParentNon-metal phosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Non-metal phosphate
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity14.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0002-0794000000-6c866e626b9356994d46View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0394000000-3a469377821d88bd699fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0794000000-6c866e626b9356994d46View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000t-0972000000-2ddd7182426dbace5342View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-1805c2208b5ff15a75b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-0e85f764ac98e8949759View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-869a362083996a0cec77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-801101cccfd6c25271d4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-6f386712e664a4b37a0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-94c04c712e24776fb333View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-9cc1283f5af78eb26124View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-c1da993c0996e8d60830View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 35V, negativesplash10-002b-9000000000-ccb36e7b3439fcc25313View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-e618cbd5a94aa5860a29View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b7f0efd9272b1a27eac4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-8cadeed88c84e8c2b6c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 6V, negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-093cd2a2a662118d8432View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 6V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-46d4cee1b5ac630ba9b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 1V, negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-40333890e636692e7970View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 2V, negativesplash10-0006-0190000000-52fa21c93ab4c97f8df2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 3V, negativesplash10-0006-0490000000-32e316211facaa3d3bb2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 4V, negativesplash10-0005-0960000000-bd7aaa47a8ffd82012d3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 5V, negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-463d7b1bf72bcc10126fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 6V, negativesplash10-0002-0910000000-3c9c666ac95b68e43224View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-12a5e23d24cd494e99c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-91e06ca38117aabdb14cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000t-9000000000-19b1c041aa5e2adcc3e6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-e56eecd6724dfbf74160View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-0a46ba32971030356ac5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-3a53d27e23b39429d092View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0002142
DrugBank IDDB09394
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB013380
KNApSAcK IDC00007408
Chemspider ID979
KEGG Compound IDC00009
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhosphoric_Acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1004
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID26078
References
Synthesis ReferenceRosso, Janina A.; Rodriguez Nieto, Felipe J.; Gonzalez, Monica C.; Martire, Daniel O. Reactions of phosphate radicals with substituted benzenes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry (1998), 116(1), 21-25.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 74 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Performs the first committed step in the biosynthesis of isoprenes.
Gene Name:
MVD
Uniprot ID:
Q0P570
Molecular weight:
43732.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + 5-Diphosphomevalonic acid → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
Gene Name:
PFKFB1
Uniprot ID:
P49872
Molecular weight:
54657.0
Reactions
D-Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate + Water → Fructose 6-phosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
O46411
Molecular weight:
64841.0
Reactions
2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate + Water → Deoxyguanosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Guanosine monophosphate + Water → Guanosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Xanthylic acid + Water → Xanthosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Inosinic acid + Water → Inosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine monophosphate + Water → Deoxyadenosine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Nicotinamide riboside + Hydrogen phosphate → Nicotinamide ribotide + Waterdetails
Nicotinic acid mononucleotide + Water → Nicotinate D-ribonucleoside + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Uridine 5'-monophosphate + Water → Uridine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
dCMP + Water → Deoxycytidine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
5-Thymidylic acid + Water → Thymidine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P41500
Molecular weight:
11432.0
Reactions
Acetylphosphate + Water → Acetic acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules. Also participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P10096
Molecular weight:
35868.0
Reactions
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NAD + Hydrogen phosphate → Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate + NADHdetails
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NAD → Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate + Hydrogen phosphate + NADHdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Canalicular ectonucleoside NTPDase responsible for the main hepatic NTPDase activity. Ectonucleoside NTPDases catalyze the hydrolysis of gamma- and beta-phosphate residues of nucleotides, playing a central role in concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Has activity toward ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP, but not toward AMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENTPD8
Uniprot ID:
A0JND9
Molecular weight:
53240.0
Reactions
IDP + Water → Inosinic acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Water → IDP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine diphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RU6
Molecular weight:
40827.0
Reactions
Glucose 1-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Alpha-D-Glucose + Hydrogen phosphate → Glucose 6-phosphate + Waterdetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
A6H751
Molecular weight:
64900.0
Reactions
Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate → Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2) + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid → Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](n) + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations, acting as a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Plays a role in regulating glucose sensing and insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Appears to modulate glycerol gluconeogenesis in liver. Important regulator of appetite and adiposity; increased expression of the protein in liver after nutrient excess increases circulating satiety hormones and reduces appetite-stimulating neuropeptides and thus seems to provide a feedback mechanism to limit weight gain.
Gene Name:
FBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZB7
Molecular weight:
36728.0
Reactions
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + Water → Fructose 6-phosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3'(2')-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphate (PAP) to AMP. Has 1000-fold lower activity towards inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P2) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P3), but does not hydrolyze Ins(1)P, Ins(3,4)P2, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 or InsP6 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
BPNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCK3
Molecular weight:
33328.0
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Water → Adenosine phosphosulfate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
Q5EAC2
Molecular weight:
52066.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Glycine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Glutathionedetails
Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine triphosphate + Glycine → Glutathione + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Has nucleotide phosphatase activity towards ATP, GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP. Hydrolyzes nucleoside diphosphates with lower efficiency (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NTPCR
Uniprot ID:
Q1LZ78
Molecular weight:
20682.0
Reactions
Thiamine pyrophosphate + Water → Thiamine monophosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting step of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. This is a 2 steps reaction starting with the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the biotin carried by the biotin carboxyl carrier (BCC) domain followed by the transfer of the carboxyl group from carboxylated biotin to acetyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q9TTS3
Molecular weight:
265303.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonate + Acetyl-CoA → Hydrogen phosphate + ADP + Malonyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Protein serine phosphatase that dephosphorylates 'Ser-3' in cofilin and probably also dephosphorylates phospho-serine residues in DSTN. Regulates cofilin-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Required for normal progress through mitosis and normal cytokinesis. Does not dephosphorylate phospho-threonines in LIMK1. Does not dephosphorylate peptides containing phospho-tyrosine (PubMed:15580268). Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) phosphatase, which also catalyzes the dephosphorylation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), with order of substrate preference PLP > PNP > PMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDXP
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZBF9
Molecular weight:
31749.0
Reactions
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxal + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This is one of the 2 subunits of the biotin-dependent propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of odd chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and valine and other metabolites. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of propionyl-CoA/propanoyl-CoA to D-methylmalonyl-CoA/(S)-methylmalonyl-CoA (By similarity). Within the holoenzyme, the alpha subunit catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the biotin carried by the biotin carboxyl carrier (BCC) domain, while the beta subunit then transfers the carboxyl group from carboxylated biotin to propionyl-CoA (By similarity). Propionyl-CoA carboxylase also significantly acts on butyryl-CoA/butanoyl-CoA, which is converted to ethylmalonyl-CoA/(2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA (By similarity). Other alternative minor substrates include (2E)-butenoyl-CoA/crotonoyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PCCB
Uniprot ID:
Q2TBR0
Molecular weight:
58311.0
Reactions
Propionyl-CoA + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonate → S-Methylmalonyl-CoA + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. The reaction comprises two steps that are both catalyzed by the same enzyme: formation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and triphosphate, and subsequent hydrolysis of the triphosphate.
Gene Name:
MAT1A
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJC6
Molecular weight:
43761.0
Reactions
Selenomethionine + Adenosine triphosphate + Water → Se-Adenosylselenomethionine + Hydrogen phosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Methionine + Water → S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen phosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Responsible for the provision of inositol required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides and has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium action in brain. Has broad substrate specificity and can use myo-inositol monophosphates, myo-inositol 1,3-diphosphate, myo-inositol 1,4-diphosphate, scyllo-inositol-phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, and 2'-AMP as substrates (By similarity). Is equally active with myo-inositol monophosphate and D-galactose 1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
IMPA1
Uniprot ID:
P20456
Molecular weight:
30056.0
Reactions
Myo-inositol 1-phosphate + Water → Myoinositol + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in actin binding
Specific function:
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase implicated in smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). Also regulates actin-myosin interaction through a non-kinase activity. Phosphorylates PTK2B/PYK2 and myosin light-chains. Involved in the inflammatory response (e.g. apoptosis, vascular permeability, leukocyte diapedesis), cell motility and morphology, airway hyperreactivity and other activities relevant to asthma. Required for tonic airway smooth muscle contraction that is necessary for physiological and asthmatic airway resistance. Necessary for gastrointestinal motility. Implicated in the regulation of endothelial as well as vascular permeability, probably via the regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangements. In the nervous system it has been shown to control the growth initiation of astrocytic processes in culture and to participate in transmitter release at synapses formed between cultured sympathetic ganglion cells. Critical participant in signaling sequences that result in fibroblast apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of epithelial cell survival. Required for epithelial wound healing, especially during actomyosin ring contraction during purse-string wound closure. Mediates RhoA-dependent membrane blebbing. Triggers TRPC5 channel activity in a calcium-dependent signaling, by inducing its subcellular localization at the plasma membrane. Promotes cell migration (including tumor cells) and tumor metastasis. PTK2B/PYK2 activation by phosphorylation mediates ITGB2 activation and is thus essential to trigger neutrophil transmigration during acute lung injury (ALI). May regulate optic nerve head astrocyte migration. Probably involved in mitotic cytoskeletal regulation. Regulates tight junction probably by modulating ZO-1 exchange in the perijunctional actomyosin ring. Mediates burn-induced microvascular barrier injury; triggers endothelial contraction in the development of microvascular hyperpermeability by phosphorylating MLC. Essential for intestinal barrier dysfunction. Mediates Giardia spp.-mediated reduced epithelial barrier function during giardiasis intestinal infection via reorganization of cytoskeletal F-actin and tight junctional ZO-1. Necessary for hypotonicity-induced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent activation of volume-sensitive organic osmolyte/anion channels (VSOAC) in cervical cancer cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MYLK
Uniprot ID:
Q28824
Molecular weight:
128825.0
Reactions
Myosin light chain 3 → Myosin light chain 3 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
INPP1
Uniprot ID:
P21327
Molecular weight:
43965.0
Reactions
Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + Water → 1D-Myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This isozyme plays a key role in skeletal mineralization by regulating levels of diphosphate (PPi).
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P09487
Molecular weight:
57193.0
Reactions
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Water → Pyridoxine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of serine from carbohydrates. The reaction mechanism proceeds via the formation of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediates (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PSPH
Uniprot ID:
Q2KHU0
Molecular weight:
24850.0
Reactions
Phosphoserine + Water → L-Serine + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Component of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC), which interconverts IMP and AMP to regulate the nucleotide levels in various tissues, and which contributes to glycolysis and ammoniagenesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
Gene Name:
ADSS1
Uniprot ID:
A5PJR4
Molecular weight:
50134.0
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Hydrogen phosphate + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Cleaves a beta-phosphate from the diphosphate groups in PP-InsP5 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate) and [PP]2-InsP4 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate), suggesting that it may play a role in signal transduction. InsP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate) is not a substrate. Also able to catalyze the hydrolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, with Ap6A and Ap5A being the preferred substrates. The major reaction products are ADP and p4a from Ap6A and ADP and ATP from Ap5A. Also able to hydrolyze 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NUDT3
Uniprot ID:
A2VE79
Molecular weight:
19362.0
Reactions
5-Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate + Water → Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
Gene Name:
ADSS2
Uniprot ID:
A7MBG0
Molecular weight:
50156.0
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Hydrogen phosphate + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GART
Uniprot ID:
Q59A32
Molecular weight:
107907.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine + Glycine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Glycineamideribotidedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesizes selenophosphate from selenide and ATP.
Gene Name:
SEPHS1
Uniprot ID:
Q0VC82
Molecular weight:
42881.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen selenide + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Phosphoroselenoic acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RK2
Molecular weight:
129698.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen carbonate → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Oxalacetic aciddetails
Propionyl-CoA + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonate → S-Methylmalonyl-CoA + ADP + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Succinyl-CoA synthetase functions in the citric acid cycle (TCA), coupling the hydrolysis of succinyl-CoA to the synthesis of either ATP or GTP and thus represents the only step of substrate-level phosphorylation in the TCA. The alpha subunit of the enzyme binds the substrates coenzyme A and phosphate, while succinate binding and specificity for either ATP or GTP is provided by different beta subunits.
Gene Name:
SUCLG1
Uniprot ID:
Q58DR8
Molecular weight:
36167.0
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Hydrogen phosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → Succinic acid + Coenzyme A + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase functions in the citric acid cycle (TCA), coupling the hydrolysis of succinyl-CoA to the synthesis of GTP and thus represents the only step of substrate-level phosphorylation in the TCA. The beta subunit provides nucleotide specificity of the enzyme and binds the substrate succinate, while the binding sites for coenzyme A and phosphate are found in the alpha subunit.
Gene Name:
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q3MHX5
Molecular weight:
46691.0
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Hydrogen phosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → Succinic acid + Coenzyme A + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase that associates with over 200 regulatory proteins to form highly specific holoenzymes which dephosphorylate hundreds of biological targets. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essential for cell division, and participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. Involved in regulation of ionic conductances and long-term synaptic plasticity. May play an important role in dephosphorylating substrates such as the postsynaptic density-associated Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II. Component of the PTW/PP1 phosphatase complex, which plays a role in the control of chromatin structure and cell cycle progression during the transition from mitosis into interphase. Regulates NEK2 function in terms of kinase activity and centrosome number and splitting, both in the presence and absence of radiation-induced DNA damage. Regulator of neural tube and optic fissure closure, and enteric neural crest cell (ENCCs) migration during development. In balance with CSNK1D and CSNK1E, determines the circadian period length, through the regulation of the speed and rhythmicity of PER1 and PER2 phosphorylation. May dephosphorylate CSNK1D and CSNK1E (By similarity). Dephosphorylates CENPA (By similarity). Dephosphorylates the 'Ser-139' residue of ATG16L1 causing dissociation of ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex, thereby inhibiting autophagy (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPP1CA
Uniprot ID:
Q3T0E7
Molecular weight:
37512.0
Reactions
Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR1 + Hydrogen phosphate → Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR1details
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 + Hydrogen phosphate → Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1details
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P55859
Molecular weight:
32037.0
Reactions
Guanosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Guanine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Deoxyguanosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Guanine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
Xanthosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Xanthine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Inosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Hypoxanthine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Deoxyinosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Hypoxanthine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
Adenosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Adenine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine + Hydrogen phosphate → Adenine + Deoxyribose 1-phosphatedetails
Niacinamide + Ribose-1-arsenate → Nicotinamide riboside + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of 5-oxo-L-proline to form L-glutamate coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Gene Name:
OPLAH
Uniprot ID:
Q75WB5
Molecular weight:
137450.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyroglutamic acid + 2 Water → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (By similarity). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (By similarity). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (By similarity). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth (By similarity). AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (By similarity). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (By similarity). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3. Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity. Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53. Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility. Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation. Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization. These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation. Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AKT1
Uniprot ID:
Q01314
Molecular weight:
55748.0
Reactions
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha + Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta → Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha + Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Interconversion of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the primer of the reaction. Can also catalyze the reaction of EC 5.4.2.4 (synthase), but with a reduced activity.
Gene Name:
PGAM1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZ62
Molecular weight:
28852.0
Reactions
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 3-Phosphoglyceric acid + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
OTC
Uniprot ID:
Q9N1U7
Molecular weight:
39842.0
Reactions
Carbamoylphosphate + Ornithine → Hydrogen phosphate + Citrullinedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Protein kinase involved in intracellular signaling pathways downstream of integrins and receptor-type kinases that plays an important role in cytoskeleton dynamics, in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, mitosis, and in vesicle-mediated transport processes. Can directly phosphorylate BAD and protects cells against apoptosis. Activated by interaction with CDC42 and RAC1. Functions as GTPase effector that links the Rho-related GTPases CDC42 and RAC1 to the JNK MAP kinase pathway. Phosphorylates and activates MAP2K1, and thereby mediates activation of downstream MAP kinases. Involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, actin stress fibers and of focal adhesion complexes. Phosphorylates the tubulin chaperone TBCB and thereby plays a role in the regulation of microtubule biogenesis and organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose levels. Part of a ternary complex that contains PAK1, DVL1 and MUSK that is important for MUSK-dependent regulation of AChR clustering during the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activity is inhibited in cells undergoing apoptosis, potentially due to binding of CDC2L1 and CDC2L2. Phosphorylates MYL9/MLC2. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-338' and 'Ser-339' resulting in: activation of RAF1, stimulation of RAF1 translocation to mitochondria, phosphorylation of BAD by RAF1, and RAF1 binding to BCL2. Phosphorylates SNAI1 at 'Ser-246' promoting its transcriptional repressor activity by increasing its accumulation in the nucleus. In podocytes, promotes NR3C2 nuclear localization. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin (CFL1) and for the up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3, maybe through CFL1 phosphorylation and inactivation. Plays a role in RUFY3-mediated facilitating gastric cancer cells migration and invasion. In response to DNA damage, phosphorylates MORC2 which activates its ATPase activity and facilitates chromatin remodeling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PAK1
Uniprot ID:
Q08E52
Molecular weight:
60546.0
Reactions
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 → Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 → Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses. Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on 2 critical serine residues. These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis. In addition to the NF-kappa-B inhibitors, phosphorylates several other components of the signaling pathway including NEMO/IKBKG, NF-kappa-B subunits RELA and NFKB1, as well as IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKBKE. IKK-related kinase phosphorylations may prevent the overproduction of inflammatory mediators since they exert a negative regulation on canonical IKKs. Phosphorylates FOXO3, mediating the TNF-dependent inactivation of this pro-apoptotic transcription factor. Also phosphorylates other substrates including NCOA3, BCL10 and IRS1. Within the nucleus, acts as an adapter protein for NFKBIA degradation in UV-induced NF-kappa-B activation (By similarity). Phosphorylates RIPK1 at 'Ser-25' which represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IKBKB
Uniprot ID:
Q95KV0
Molecular weight:
86647.0
Reactions
NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha → NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen. Constitutes the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cytosine nucleotides (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CTPS2
Uniprot ID:
Q1RMS2
Molecular weight:
65481.0
Reactions
Uridine triphosphate + Adenosine triphosphate → Cytidine triphosphate + ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + dCTPdetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts downstream of mTOR signaling in response to growth factors and nutrients to promote cell proliferation, cell growth and cell cycle progression. Regulates protein synthesis through phosphorylation of EIF4B, RPS6 and EEF2K, and contributes to cell survival by repressing the pro-apoptotic function of BAD. Under conditions of nutrient depletion, the inactive form associates with the EIF3 translation initiation complex. Upon mitogenic stimulation, phosphorylation by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) leads to dissociation from the EIF3 complex and activation. The active form then phosphorylates and activates several substrates in the pre-initiation complex, including the EIF2B complex and the cap-binding complex component EIF4B. Also controls translation initiation by phosphorylating a negative regulator of EIF4A, PDCD4, targeting it for ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. Promotes initiation of the pioneer round of protein synthesis by phosphorylating POLDIP3/SKAR. In response to IGF1, activates translation elongation by phosphorylating EEF2 kinase (EEF2K), which leads to its inhibition and thus activation of EEF2. Also plays a role in feedback regulation of mTORC2 by mTORC1 by phosphorylating RICTOR, resulting in the inhibition of mTORC2 and AKT1 signaling. Mediates cell survival by phosphorylating the pro-apoptotic protein BAD and suppressing its pro-apoptotic function. Phosphorylates mitochondrial URI1 leading to dissociation of a URI1-PPP1CC complex. The free mitochondrial PPP1CC can then dephosphorylate RPS6KB1 at Thr-412, which is proposed to be a negative feedback mechanism for the RPS6KB1 anti-apoptotic function. Mediates TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance by phosphorylating IRS1 at multiple serine residues, resulting in accelerated degradation of IRS1. In cells lacking functional TSC1-2 complex, constitutively phosphorylates and inhibits GSK3B. May be involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement through binding to neurabin. Phosphorylates and activates the pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme CAD, downstream of MTOR. Following activation by mTORC1, phosphorylates EPRS and thereby plays a key role in fatty acid uptake by adipocytes and also most probably in interferon-gamma-induced translation inhibition.
Gene Name:
RPS6KB1
Uniprot ID:
Q6TJY3
Molecular weight:
59352.0
Reactions
Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death → Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. PKA activation regulates diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and differentiation and regulation of microtubule dynamics, chromatin condensation and decondensation, nuclear envelope disassembly and reassembly, as well as regulation of intracellular transport mechanisms and ion flux. Regulates the abundance of compartmentalized pools of its regulatory subunits through phosphorylation of PJA2 which binds and ubiquitinates these subunits, leading to their subsequent proteolysis. Phosphorylates GPKOW which regulates its ability to bind RNA.
Gene Name:
PRKACB
Uniprot ID:
P05131
Molecular weight:
40594.0
Reactions
Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR1 → Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 → Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle → Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint (By similarity). Phosphorylates PML and promotes its interaction with PIN1, leading to PML degradation. Phosphorylates CDK2AP2.
Gene Name:
MAPK1
Uniprot ID:
P46196
Molecular weight:
41376.0
Reactions
ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 → ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Required for synthesis of pyridoxal-5-phosphate from vitamin B6.
Gene Name:
PDXK
Uniprot ID:
Q0II59
Molecular weight:
34817.0
Reactions
Pyridoxine + Hydrogen phosphate → Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + Waterdetails
Pyridoxamine + Hydrogen phosphate → Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK13 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors such as ELK1 and ATF2. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. MAPK13 is one of the less studied p38 MAPK isoforms. Some of the targets are downstream kinases such as MAPKAPK2, which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. Plays a role in the regulation of protein translation by phosphorylating and inactivating EEF2K. Involved in cytoskeletal remodeling through phosphorylation of MAPT and STMN1. Mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of CXCL14. Plays an important role in the regulation of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation, apoptosis and skin tumor development. Phosphorylates the transcriptional activator MYB in response to stress which leads to rapid MYB degradation via a proteasome-dependent pathway. MAPK13 also phosphorylates and down-regulates PRKD1 during regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAPK13
Uniprot ID:
Q3T0N5
Molecular weight:
42229.0
Reactions
Transcription factor AP-1 → Transcription factor AP-1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 → Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses. Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on serine residues. These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis. Negatively regulates the pathway by phosphorylating the scaffold protein TAXBP1 and thus promoting the assembly of the A20/TNFAIP3 ubiquitin-editing complex (composed of A20/TNFAIP3, TAX1BP1, and the E3 ligases ITCH and RNF11). Therefore, CHUK plays a key role in the negative feedback of NF-kappa-B canonical signaling to limit inflammatory gene activation. As part of the non-canonical pathway of NF-kappa-B activation, the MAP3K14-activated CHUK/IKKA homodimer phosphorylates NFKB2/p100 associated with RelB, inducing its proteolytic processing to NFKB2/p52 and the formation of NF-kappa-B RelB-p52 complexes. In turn, these complexes regulate genes encoding molecules involved in B-cell survival and lymphoid organogenesis. Participates also in the negative feedback of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B signaling pathway by phosphorylating and destabilizing MAP3K14/NIK. Within the nucleus, phosphorylates CREBBP and consequently increases both its transcriptional and histone acetyltransferase activities. Modulates chromatin accessibility at NF-kappa-B-responsive promoters by phosphorylating histones H3 at 'Ser-10' that are subsequently acetylated at 'Lys-14' by CREBBP. Additionally, phosphorylates the CREBBP-interacting protein NCOA3. Also phosphorylates FOXO3 and may regulate this pro-apoptotic transcription factor. Interacts with SASH1 (By similarity). Phosphorylates RIPK1 at 'Ser-25' which represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CHUK
Uniprot ID:
Q95KV1
Molecular weight:
84344.0
Reactions
NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha → NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCM4
Molecular weight:
97456.0
Reactions
Glycogen + Hydrogen phosphate → Amylose + Glucose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ADP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
Q32S38
Molecular weight:
69023.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Cysteine → ADP + Hydrogen phosphate + Gamma-Glutamylcysteinedetails
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine → Gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Adenosine diphosphate ribose + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. With MAP3K3/MKK3, catalyzes the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in the MAP kinases p38 MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13 and MAPK14 and plays an important role in the regulation of cellular responses to cytokines and all kinds of stresses. Especially, MAP2K3/MKK3 and MAP2K6/MKK6 are both essential for the activation of MAPK11 and MAPK13 induced by environmental stress, whereas MAP2K6/MKK6 is the major MAPK11 activator in response to TNF. MAP2K6/MKK6 also phosphorylates and activates PAK6. The p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway leads to direct activation of transcription factors. Nuclear targets of p38 MAP kinase include the transcription factors ATF2 and ELK1. Within the p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway, MAP3K6/MKK6 mediates phosphorylation of STAT4 through MAPK14 activation, and is therefore required for STAT4 activation and STAT4-regulated gene expression in response to IL-12 stimulation. The pathway is also crucial for IL-6-induced SOCS3 expression and down-regulation of IL-6-mediated gene induction; and for IFNG-dependent gene transcription. Has a role in osteoclast differentiation through NF-kappa-B transactivation by TNFSF11, and in endochondral ossification and since SOX9 is another likely downstream target of the p38 MAPK pathway. MAP2K6/MKK6 mediates apoptotic cell death in thymocytes. Acts also as a regulator for melanocytes dendricity, through the modulation of Rho family GTPases (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MAP2K6
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9X2
Molecular weight:
37578.0
Reactions
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 → Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 → Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 → Mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Acts on tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, low-MW aryl phosphates and natural and synthetic acyl phosphates.
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
P11064
Molecular weight:
18055.0
Reactions
Flavin Mononucleotide + Water → Riboflavin + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in adenylate cyclase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolase highly specific for thiamine triphosphate (ThTP).
Gene Name:
THTPA
Uniprot ID:
Q8MKF1
Molecular weight:
23983.0
Reactions
Thiamin triphosphate + Water → Thiamine pyrophosphate + Hydrogen phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Adapter protein that binds to and probably organizes the subcellular localization of a variety of membrane proteins. May link various receptors to the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin glycoprotein complex. Plays an important role in synapse formation and in the organization of UTRN and acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular synapse. Binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SNTA1
Uniprot ID:
Q0P5E6
Molecular weight:
53873.0

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 74 proteins in total.