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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:45:50 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 22:00:51 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0001429
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB01429
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhosphate
DescriptionPhosphoric acid, also known as phosphate or [po(OH)3], belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal phosphates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a phosphate as its largest oxoanion. Phosphoric acid exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. Phosphoric acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Phosphoric acid is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[PO(OH)3]ChEBI
Acide phosphoriqueChEBI
Acidum phosphoricumChEBI
H3PO4ChEBI
Orthophosphoric acidChEBI
PhosphorsaeureloesungenChEBI
PhosphorsaeureChEBI
Phosphoric acidKegg
OrthophosphateGenerator
PhosphateChEBI
Diphosphate tetrasodiumHMDB
MarphosHMDB
NFBHMDB
ortho- Phosphoric acidHMDB
Phosphoric acid (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
Sodium pyrophosphateHMDB
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrateHMDB
Sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate biochemicaHMDB
SonacHMDB
Tetra-sodium pyrophosphateHMDB
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 10-hydrateHMDB
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate decahydrateHMDB
White phosphoric acidHMDB
K-EtchantMeSH, HMDB
Uni-etchMeSH, HMDB
Concise etchantMeSH, HMDB
CondactMeSH, HMDB
Hydrogen phosphoric acidGenerator
Dihydrogen phosphateHMDB
Hydrogen phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaH3O4P
Average Molecular Weight97.9952
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight97.976895096
IUPAC Namephosphoric acid
Traditional Namephosphoric acid
CAS Registry Number7664-38-2
SMILES
OP(O)(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)
InChI KeyNBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal phosphates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a phosphate as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal phosphates
Direct ParentNon-metal phosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Non-metal phosphate
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Exogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity14.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0002-0794000000-6c866e626b9356994d46View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0394000000-3a469377821d88bd699fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0794000000-6c866e626b9356994d46View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000t-0972000000-2ddd7182426dbace5342View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-1805c2208b5ff15a75b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-0e85f764ac98e8949759View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-869a362083996a0cec77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-801101cccfd6c25271d4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-6f386712e664a4b37a0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-94c04c712e24776fb333View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-9cc1283f5af78eb26124View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-c1da993c0996e8d60830View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 35V, negativesplash10-002b-9000000000-ccb36e7b3439fcc25313View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-e618cbd5a94aa5860a29View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b7f0efd9272b1a27eac4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-8cadeed88c84e8c2b6c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 6V, negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-093cd2a2a662118d8432View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 6V, negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-46d4cee1b5ac630ba9b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 1V, negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-40333890e636692e7970View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 2V, negativesplash10-0006-0190000000-52fa21c93ab4c97f8df2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 3V, negativesplash10-0006-0490000000-32e316211facaa3d3bb2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 4V, negativesplash10-0005-0960000000-bd7aaa47a8ffd82012d3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 5V, negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-463d7b1bf72bcc10126fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 6V, negativesplash10-0002-0910000000-3c9c666ac95b68e43224View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-12a5e23d24cd494e99c1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-91e06ca38117aabdb14cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000t-9000000000-19b1c041aa5e2adcc3e6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-e56eecd6724dfbf74160View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-0a46ba32971030356ac5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-3a53d27e23b39429d092View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified513.839 +/- 87.395 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • C. R. E. Cogginsa...
details
KidneyExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified12530.088 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Park, Y. W; Juáre...
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1000 - 4000 uMInfantBoth
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Fatal bovine respiratory disease
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000973
DrugBank IDDB09394
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB013380
KNApSAcK IDC00007408
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00009
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhosphoric_Acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1004
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID26078
References
Synthesis ReferenceCremer, Josef; Hartmann, Fridolin; Rodis, Franz; Hinz, Arnulf. Preparation of alkali or alkaline earth phosphates with simultaneous recovery of volatile mineral acids. Ger. (1966), 2 pp. CODEN: GWXXAW DE 1227435 19661027 CAN 66:12584 AN 1967:12584
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sun HZ, Shi K, Wu XH, Xue MY, Wei ZH, Liu JX, Liu HY: Lactation-related metabolic mechanism investigated based on mammary gland metabolomics and 4 biofluids' metabolomics relationships in dairy cows. BMC Genomics. 2017 Dec 2;18(1):936. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-4314-1. [PubMed:29197344 ]
  2. Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W. (2007). Park, Y. W; Juárez, Manuela ; Ramos, M.; Haenlein, G. F. W.. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Res.(2007) 68:88-113 doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.09.013. Small Ruminant Research.

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 81 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Performs the first committed step in the biosynthesis of isoprenes.
Gene Name:
MVD
Uniprot ID:
Q0P570
Molecular weight:
43732.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
May provide the missing metabolic reaction required to link the mitochondria and the cytoplasm in the mammalian model of one-carbon folate metabolism in embryonic an transformed cells complementing thus the enzymatic activities of MTHFD2.
Gene Name:
MTHFD1L
Uniprot ID:
Q0VCR7
Molecular weight:
105227.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Retina-specific kinase involved in the shutoff of the photoresponse and adaptation to changing light conditions via cone opsin phosphorylation, including rhodopsin (RHO).
Gene Name:
GRK7
Uniprot ID:
Q8WMV0
Molecular weight:
62125.0
General function:
Defense mechanisms
Specific function:
Epithelial ion channel that plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial ion and water transport and fluid homeostasis. Mediates the transport of chloride ions across the cell membrane (By similarity). Channel activity is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The ion channel is also permeable to HCO(3-); selectivity depends on the extracellular chloride concentration. Exerts its function also by modulating the activity of other ion channels and transporters. Contributes to the regulation of the pH and the ion content of the epithelial fluid layer. Modulates the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) complex, in part by regulating the cell surface expression of the ENaC complex. May regulate bicarbonate secretion and salvage in epithelial cells by regulating the transporter SLC4A7. Can inhibit the chloride channel activity of ANO1 (By similarity). Plays a role in the chloride and bicarbonate homeostasis during sperm epididymal maturation and capacitation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CFTR
Uniprot ID:
P35071
Molecular weight:
167758.0
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase forming with CNEP1R1 an active phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates and may activate LPIN1 and LPIN2. LPIN1 and LPIN2 are phosphatidate phosphatases that catalyze the conversion of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and control the metabolism of fatty acids at different levels. May indirectly modulate the lipid composition of nuclear and/or endoplasmic reticulum membranes and be required for proper nuclear membrane morphology and/or dynamics. May also indirectly regulate the production of lipid droplets and triacylglycerol. May antagonize BMP signaling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CTDNEP1
Uniprot ID:
Q1RMV9
Molecular weight:
28393.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
Gene Name:
PFKFB1
Uniprot ID:
P49872
Molecular weight:
54657.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many biological processes including regulation of cell growth and survival, cell adhesion, integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, immune response and axon guidance. Inactive FYN is phosphorylated on its C-terminal tail within the catalytic domain. Following activation by PKA, the protein subsequently associates with PTK2/FAK1, allowing PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation, activation and targeting to focal adhesions. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and CTNND1 (delta-catenin). Regulates cytoskeletal remodeling by phosphorylating several proteins including the actin regulator WAS and the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAPT. Promotes cell survival by phosphorylating AGAP2/PIKE-A and preventing its apoptotic cleavage. Participates in signal transduction pathways that regulate the integrity of the glomerular slit diaphragm (an essential part of the glomerular filter of the kidney) by phosphorylating several slit diaphragm components including NPHS1, KIRREL1 and TRPC6. Plays a role in neural processes by phosphorylating DPYSL2, a multifunctional adapter protein within the central nervous system, ARHGAP32, a regulator for Rho family GTPases implicated in various neural functions, and SNCA, a small pre-synaptic protein. Participates in the downstream signaling pathways that lead to T-cell differentiation and proliferation following T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Phosphorylates PTK2B/PYK2 in response to T-cell receptor activation. Also participates in negative feedback regulation of TCR signaling through phosphorylation of PAG1, thereby promoting interaction between PAG1 and CSK and recruitment of CSK to lipid rafts. CSK maintains LCK and FYN in an inactive form. Promotes CD28-induced phosphorylation of VAV1. In mast cells, phosphorylates CLNK after activation of immunoglobulin epsilon receptor signaling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FYN
Uniprot ID:
A0JNB0
Molecular weight:
60718.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation and inactivation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, the key regulatory enzyme of the valine, leucine and isoleucine catabolic pathways. Key enzyme that regulate the activity state of the BCKD complex.
Gene Name:
BCKDK
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJG8
Molecular weight:
46438.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involved in cell growth and survival control. IGF1R is crucial for tumor transformation and survival of malignant cell. Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase, leading to receptor autophosphorylation, and tyrosines phosphorylation of multiple substrates, that function as signaling adapter proteins including, the insulin-receptor substrates (IRS1/2), Shc and 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway and the Ras-MAPK pathway. The result of activating the MAPK pathway is increased cellular proliferation, whereas activating the PI3K pathway inhibits apoptosis and stimulates protein synthesis. Phosphorylated IRS1 can activate the 85 kDa regulatory subunit of PI3K (PIK3R1), leading to activation of several downstream substrates, including protein AKT/PKB. AKT phosphorylation, in turn, enhances protein synthesis through mTOR activation and triggers the antiapoptotic effects of IGFIR through phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD. In parallel to PI3K-driven signaling, recruitment of Grb2/SOS by phosphorylated IRS1 or Shc leads to recruitment of Ras and activation of the ras-MAPK pathway. In addition to these two main signaling pathways IGF1R signals also through the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway (JAK/STAT). Phosphorylation of JAK proteins can lead to phosphorylation/activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins. In particular activation of STAT3, may be essential for the transforming activity of IGF1R. The JAK/STAT pathway activates gene transcription and may be responsible for the transforming activity. JNK kinases can also be activated by the IGF1R. IGF1 exerts inhibiting activities on JNK activation via phosphorylation and inhibition of MAP3K5/ASK1, which is able to directly associate with the IGF1R (By similarity). When present in a hybrid receptor with INSR, binds IGF1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IGF1R
Uniprot ID:
Q05688
Molecular weight:
72511.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Involved in the inactivation of MAP kinases. Dephosphorylates ERK, JNK and p38 MAP-kinases (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DUSP14
Uniprot ID:
Q17QM8
Molecular weight:
22237.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
Q08DA1
Molecular weight:
112643.0
General function:
Involved in activin receptor activity
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Gene Name:
ACVR2A
Uniprot ID:
Q28043
Molecular weight:
57952.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
ATPase required for the post-translational delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Recognizes and selectively binds the transmembrane domain of TA proteins in the cytosol. This complex then targets to the endoplasmic reticulum by membrane-bound receptors, where the tail-anchored protein is released for insertion. This process is regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. ATP binding drives the homodimer towards the closed dimer state, facilitating recognition of newly synthesized TA membrane proteins. ATP hydrolysis is required for insertion. Subsequently, the homodimer reverts towards the open dimer state, lowering its affinity for the membrane-bound receptor, and returning it to the cytosol to initiate a new round of targeting.
Gene Name:
GET3
Uniprot ID:
A5PJI5
Molecular weight:
38793.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine (By similarity). Its role depends on tissue localization: in the brain, it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of ammonia (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Independently of its glutamine synthetase activity, required for endothelial cell migration during vascular development: acts by regulating membrane localization and activation of the GTPase RHOJ, possibly by promoting RHOJ palmitoylation. May act as a palmitoyltransferase for RHOJ: able to autopalmitoylate and then transfer the palmitoyl group to RHOJ (By similarity). Plays a role in ribosomal 40S subunit biogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUL
Uniprot ID:
P15103
Molecular weight:
42031.0
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
O46411
Molecular weight:
64841.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations and probably participates in glycogen synthesis from carbohydrate precursors, such as lactate.
Gene Name:
FBP2
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJJ9
Molecular weight:
36767.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P41500
Molecular weight:
11432.0
General function:
Involved in activin receptor activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-2 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin type-1 serine/threonine kinase receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B or ACVR1c). Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. Activin is also thought to have a paracrine or autocrine role in follicular development in the ovary. Within the receptor complex, the type-2 receptors act as a primary activin receptors (binds activin-A/INHBA, activin-B/INHBB as well as inhibin-A/INHA-INHBA). The type-1 receptors like ACVR1B act as downstream transducers of activin signals. Activin binds to type-2 receptor at the plasma membrane and activates its serine-threonine kinase. The activated receptor type-2 then phosphorylates and activates the type-1 receptor. Once activated, the type-1 receptor binds and phosphorylates the SMAD proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3, on serine residues of the C-terminal tail. Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. This SMAD complex translocates into the nucleus where it mediates activin-induced transcription. Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. Activin signal transduction is also antagonized by the binding to the receptor of inhibin-B via the IGSF1 inhibin coreceptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACVR2B
Uniprot ID:
Q95126
Molecular weight:
57569.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P57709
Molecular weight:
104780.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules. Also participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P10096
Molecular weight:
35868.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
Gene Name:
PFKFB3
Uniprot ID:
Q28901
Molecular weight:
53584.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Canalicular ectonucleoside NTPDase responsible for the main hepatic NTPDase activity. Ectonucleoside NTPDases catalyze the hydrolysis of gamma- and beta-phosphate residues of nucleotides, playing a central role in concentration of extracellular nucleotides. Has activity toward ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP, but not toward AMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENTPD8
Uniprot ID:
A0JND9
Molecular weight:
53240.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ATP9B
Uniprot ID:
A1A4J6
Molecular weight:
127457.0
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
A2VDL6
Molecular weight:
112179.0
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
Q05927
Molecular weight:
62966.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Inactivates MAPK1 and MAPK3 which leads to dephosphorylation of heat shock factor protein 4 and a reduction in its DNA-binding activity.
Gene Name:
DUSP26
Uniprot ID:
Q17QJ3
Molecular weight:
23767.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGM
Uniprot ID:
B0JYK6
Molecular weight:
97288.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Synthesis and degradation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.
Gene Name:
PFKFB2
Uniprot ID:
P26285
Molecular weight:
60811.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
O18956
Molecular weight:
58114.0
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Microtubule-associated force-producing protein involved in producing microtubule bundles and able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. Most probably involved in vesicular trafficking processes. Involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNM1
Uniprot ID:
Q08DF4
Molecular weight:
96252.0
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
Q29RU6
Molecular weight:
40827.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors, probably inducing a desensitization of them.
Gene Name:
GRK3
Uniprot ID:
P26818
Molecular weight:
79804.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Dual specificity phosphatase able to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues, with a preference for phosphotyrosine as a substrate.
Gene Name:
DUPD1
Uniprot ID:
P0C591
Molecular weight:
24984.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in the control of the eukaryotic cell cycle by modulating the centrosome cycle as well as mitotic onset; promotes G2-M transition, and regulates G1 progress and G1-S transition via association with multiple interphase cyclins. Required in higher cells for entry into S-phase and mitosis. Phosphorylates PARVA/actopaxin, APC, AMPH, APC, BARD1, Bcl-xL/BCL2L1, BRCA2, CALD1, CASP8, CDC7, CDC20, CDC25A, CDC25C, CC2D1A, CENPA, CSNK2 proteins/CKII, FZR1/CDH1, CDK7, CEBPB, CHAMP1, DMD/dystrophin, EEF1 proteins/EF-1, EZH2, KIF11/EG5, EGFR, FANCG, FOS, GFAP, GOLGA2/GM130, GRASP1, UBE2A/hHR6A, HIST1H1 proteins/histone H1, HMGA1, HIVEP3/KRC, LMNA, LMNB, LMNC, LBR, LATS1, MAP1B, MAP4, MARCKS, MCM2, MCM4, MKLP1, MYB, NEFH, NFIC, NPC/nuclear pore complex, PITPNM1/NIR2, NPM1, NCL, NUCKS1, NPM1/numatrin, ORC1, PRKAR2A, EEF1E1/p18, EIF3F/p47, p53/TP53, NONO/p54NRB, PAPOLA, PLEC/plectin, RB1, TPPP, UL40/R2, RAB4A, RAP1GAP, RCC1, RPS6KB1/S6K1, KHDRBS1/SAM68, ESPL1, SKI, BIRC5/survivin, STIP1, TEX14, beta-tubulins, MAPT/TAU, NEDD1, VIM/vimentin, TK1, FOXO1, RUNX1/AML1, SAMHD1, SIRT2 and RUNX2. CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. Essential for early stages of embryonic development. During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several substrates that trigger at least centrosome separation, Golgi dynamics, nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated phosphorylation to allow sister chromatid separation, chromosome decondensation, reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinesis. Inactivated by PKR/EIF2AK2- and WEE1-mediated phosphorylation upon DNA damage to stop cell cycle and genome replication at the G2 checkpoint thus facilitating DNA repair. Reactivated after successful DNA repair through WIP1-dependent signaling leading to CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation and restoring cell cycle progression. In proliferating cells, CDK1-mediated FOXO1 phosphorylation at the G2-M phase represses FOXO1 interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promotes FOXO1 nuclear accumulation and transcription factor activity, leading to cell death of postmitotic neurons. The phosphorylation of beta-tubulins regulates microtubule dynamics during mitosis. NEDD1 phosphorylation promotes PLK1-mediated NEDD1 phosphorylation and subsequent targeting of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) to the centrosome, an important step for spindle formation. In addition, CC2D1A phosphorylation regulates CC2D1A spindle pole localization and association with SCC1/RAD21 and centriole cohesion during mitosis. The phosphorylation of Bcl-xL/BCL2L1 after prolongated G2 arrest upon DNA damage triggers apoptosis. In contrast, CASP8 phosphorylation during mitosis prevents its activation by proteolysis and subsequent apoptosis. This phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. CALD1 phosphorylation promotes Schwann cell migration during peripheral nerve regeneration. CDK1-cyclin-B complex phosphorylates NCKAP5L and mediates its dissociation from centrosomes during mitosis. Regulates the amplitude of the cyclic expression of the core clock gene ARNTL/BMAL1 by phosphorylating its transcriptional repressor NR1D1, and this phosphorylation is necessary for SCF(FBXW7)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NR1D1 (By similarity). Interacts with proteasome subunit PSMA8; to participate in meiosis progression during spermatogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CDK1
Uniprot ID:
P48734
Molecular weight:
34025.0
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
A6H751
Molecular weight:
64900.0
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Microtubule-associated force-producing protein involved in producing microtubule bundles and able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. Plays a role in the regulation of neuron morphology, axon growth and formation of neuronal growth cones (By similarity). Plays an important role in vesicular trafficking processes, in particular endocytosis. Involved in cytokinesis. Regulates maturation of apoptotic cell corpse-containing phagosomes by recruiting PIK3C3 to the phagosome membrane.
Gene Name:
DNM2
Uniprot ID:
A6H7I5
Molecular weight:
97836.0
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IRGC
Uniprot ID:
Q32KW9
Molecular weight:
50698.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ITK
Uniprot ID:
A7Z039
Molecular weight:
72069.0
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. May form with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) a ubiquitously expressed complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Probably required for normal neutrophil function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC3
Uniprot ID:
Q148G2
Molecular weight:
38742.0
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP.
Gene Name:
MAT2A
Uniprot ID:
A7E3T7
Molecular weight:
43691.0
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of citrate into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, the latter serving as common substrate for de novo cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
Q32PF2
Molecular weight:
119789.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the presence of divalent cations, acting as a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Plays a role in regulating glucose sensing and insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Appears to modulate glycerol gluconeogenesis in liver. Important regulator of appetite and adiposity; increased expression of the protein in liver after nutrient excess increases circulating satiety hormones and reduces appetite-stimulating neuropeptides and thus seems to provide a feedback mechanism to limit weight gain.
Gene Name:
FBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q3SZB7
Molecular weight:
36728.0
General function:
Involved in alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodies
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes lysophospholipids to produce the signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. Major substrate is lysophosphatidylcholine (PubMed:12119361). Also can act on sphingosylphosphorylcholine producing sphingosine-1-phosphate, a modulator of cell motility. Can hydrolyze, in vitro, bis-pNPP, to some extent pNP-TMP, and barely ATP. Involved in several motility-related processes such as angiogenesis and neurite outgrowth. Acts as an angiogenic factor by stimulating migration of smooth muscle cells and microtubule formation. Stimulates migration of melanoma cells, probably via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. May have a role in induction of parturition. Possible involvement in cell proliferation and adipose tissue development. Tumor cell motility-stimulating factor (By similarity). Required for LPA production in activated platelets, cleaves the sn-1 lysophospholipids to generate sn-1 lysophosphatidic acids containing predominantly 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids (By similarity). Shows a preference for the sn-1 to the sn-2 isomer of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENPP2
Uniprot ID:
A1A4K5
Molecular weight:
101717.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates preferentially the activated forms of a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Such receptor phosphorylation initiates beta-arrestin-mediated receptor desensitization, internalization, and signaling events leading to their down-regulation. Phosphorylates a variety of GPCRs, including adrenergic receptors (Beta-2 adrenergic receptor), muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (more specifically Gi-coupled M2/M4 subtypes), dopamine receptors and opioid receptors. In addition to GPCRs, also phosphorylates various substrates: Hsc70-interacting protein/ST13, TP53/p53, HDAC5, and arrestin-1/ARRB1. Phosphorylation of ARRB1 by GRK5 inhibits G-protein independent MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling downstream of 5HT4-receptors. Phosphorylation of HDAC5, a repressor of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) leading to nuclear export of HDAC5 and allowing MEF2-mediated transcription. Phosphorylation of TP53/p53, a crucial tumor suppressor, inhibits TP53/p53-mediated apoptosis. Phosphorylation of ST13 regulates internalization of the chemokine receptor. Phosphorylates rhodopsin (RHO) (in vitro) and a non G-protein-coupled receptor, LRP6 during Wnt signaling (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRK5
Uniprot ID:
P43249
Molecular weight:
67889.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
YES1
Uniprot ID:
A7MB57
Molecular weight:
60597.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FGR
Uniprot ID:
A5PKG9
Molecular weight:
59332.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase involved in the inactivation of MAP kinases. Has a specificity for the MAPK11/MAPK12/MAPK13/MAPK14 subfamily. It preferably dephosphorylates p38.
Gene Name:
DUSP10
Uniprot ID:
Q0IID7
Molecular weight:
52389.0
General function:
Involved in GTP binding
Specific function:
Functions in mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Mediates membrane fission through oligomerization into membrane-associated tubular structures that wrap around the scission site to constrict and sever the mitochondrial membrane through a GTP hydrolysis-dependent mechanism. The specific recruitment at scission sites is mediated by membrane receptors like MFF, MIEF1 and MIEF2 for mitochondrial membranes. While the recruitment by the membrane receptors is GTP-dependent, the following hydrolysis of GTP induces the dissociation from the receptors and allows DNM1L filaments to curl into closed rings that are probably sufficient to sever a double membrane. Through its function in mitochondrial division, ensures the survival of at least some types of postmitotic neurons, including Purkinje cells, by suppressing oxidative damage. Required for normal brain development, including that of cerebellum. Facilitates developmentally regulated apoptosis during neural tube formation. Required for a normal rate of cytochrome c release and caspase activation during apoptosis; this requirement may depend upon the cell type and the physiological apoptotic cues. Plays an important role in mitochondrial fission during mitosis. Required for formation of endocytic vesicles. Proposed to regulate synaptic vesicle membrane dynamics through association with BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-X(L) which stimulates its GTPase activity in synaptic vesicles; the function may require its recruitment by MFF to clathrin-containing vesicles. Required for programmed necrosis execution (By similarity). Rhythmic control of its activity following phosphorylation at Ser-650 is essential for the circadian control of mitochondrial ATP production (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNM1L
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIA5
Molecular weight:
83352.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NTRK3
Uniprot ID:
A8KC75
Molecular weight:
43129.0
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A9ZTK8
Molecular weight:
14355.0

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 81 proteins in total.