Survey with prize
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Bovine Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-09-30 22:20:19 UTC
Update Date2020-06-04 21:55:45 UTC
BMDB IDBMDB0000158
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • BMDB00158
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Tyrosine
DescriptionL-Tyrosine, also known as (S)-tyrosine or para tyrosine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. Tyrosine and derivatives are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. L-Tyrosine exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa) molecule. L-Tyrosine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Tyrosine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions, within cattle. In particular, L-Tyrosine and oxoglutaric acid can be converted into 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamic acid; which is mediated by the enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase. In addition, L-Tyrosine can be converted into tyramine through its interaction with the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. In cattle, L-tyrosine is involved in a couple of metabolic pathways, which include thyroid hormone synthesis pathway and the tyrosine metabolism pathway. L-Tyrosine is a potentially toxic compound. L-Tyrosine has been found to be associated with several diseases known as irritable bowel syndrome, frontotemporal dementia, obesity, and leukemia; also l-tyrosine has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including hypermethioninemia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-(-)-TyrosineChEBI
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
(S)-3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanineChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidChEBI
(S)-TyrosineChEBI
4-Hydroxy-L-phenylalanineChEBI
L-TyrosinChEBI
TyrChEBI
TYROSINEChEBI
YChEBI
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidGenerator
(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-Α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
(-)-Α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidGenerator
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoateGenerator
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphen yl)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acidHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanineHMDB
BenzenepropanoateHMDB
Benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
L-p-TyrosineHMDB
p-TyrosineHMDB
L TyrosineHMDB
Tyrosine, L-isomerHMDB
Tyrosine, L isomerHMDB
Para tyrosineHMDB
Para-tyrosineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO3
Average Molecular Weight181.1885
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight181.073893223
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number60-18-4
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H11NO3/c10-8(9(12)13)5-6-1-3-7(11)4-2-6/h1-4,8,11H,5,10H2,(H,12,13)/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyOUYCCCASQSFEME-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. Tyrosine and derivatives are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentTyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point343 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.479 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.26HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Blood
  • Colostrum
  • Liver
  • Longissimus Thoracis Muscle
  • Mammary Gland
  • Milk
  • Muscle
  • Placenta
  • Prostate Tissue
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Semen
  • Semimembranosus Muscle
  • Testis
  • Urine
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
All TissuesExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified47.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Jiyuan Li, Everes...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified69.6 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified68-75 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified47-60 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25-42 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified91 +/- 10 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified40-44 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Trabi M, Keller M...
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
LiverDetected and Quantified84 +/- 27 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Longissimus Thoracis MuscleDetected and Quantified54 +/- 14 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Mammary GlandDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified4.71 +/- 0.96 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified4 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.6 +/- 0.3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified3 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2 - 11 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
MilkDetected and Quantified4 +/- 1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified5.8 +/- 2.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
MilkDetected and Quantified1.6 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.30 +/- 0.04 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.4 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified2.3 +/- 0.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8.11 +/- 1.97 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8.65 +/- 2.51 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MilkDetected and Quantified8278.671 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified251.11 +/- 17.54 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified44-269 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified48.4 +/- 4.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified530 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified81.35 +/- 11.06 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified97.9 +/- 13.13 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified31-41 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
MuscleDetected and Quantified82-422 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
PlacentaExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Prostate TissueExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified35 +/- 13 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified50 +/- 24 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified61 +/- 21 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified49 +/- 12 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified49 +/- 12 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified68-471 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified36 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified49.1 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified60.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified42.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified26-77 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified41.3 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified52.2 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified50.6 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified46.5 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified8 - 12 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified295 +/- 136 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified42.17 +/- 8.29 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SemenDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Semimembranosus MuscleDetected and Quantified52 +/- 10 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
TestisDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
TestisDetected and Quantified43 +/- 9 nmol/g of tissueNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
    • Aidin Foroutan, C...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified34.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy negative
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.4 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy positive
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
All Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
High dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Low dose Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection
details
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
MuscleDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Commercial Product/bacterial growth on ground beef
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified60.86 +/- 20.13 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedRumen acidosis
    • Fozia Saleem, Sou...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000158
DrugBank IDDB00135
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000446
KNApSAcK IDC00001397
Chemspider ID5833
KEGG Compound IDC00082
BioCyc IDTYR
BiGG ID33785
Wikipedia LinkTyrosine
METLIN ID34
PubChem Compound6057
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17895
References
Synthesis ReferenceEnei, Hitoshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi; Okumura, Shinji; Yamada, Hideaki. Microbiological synthesis of L-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine. I. Distribution of tyrosine phenol lyase in microorganisms. Agricultural and Biological Chemist 1972, 36:11, 1861-1868, DOI: 10.1080/00021369.1972.10860505
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2563. [PubMed:20338431 ]
  2. Mung D, Li L: Development of Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Milk Metabolomics: Comprehensive and Quantitative Profiling of the Amine/Phenol Submetabolome. Anal Chem. 2017 Apr 18;89(8):4435-4443. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03737. Epub 2017 Mar 28. [PubMed:28306241 ]
  3. O'Callaghan TF, Vazquez-Fresno R, Serra-Cayuela A, Dong E, Mandal R, Hennessy D, McAuliffe S, Dillon P, Wishart DS, Stanton C, Ross RP: Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome. Metabolites. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). pii: metabo8020027. doi: 10.3390/metabo8020027. [PubMed:29642378 ]
  4. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Nurnberger N, Sigl G, Gronwald W, Wiedemann S, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ: Correlations between milk and plasma levels of amino and carboxylic acids in dairy cows. J Proteome Res. 2013 Nov 1;12(11):5223-32. doi: 10.1021/pr4006537. Epub 2013 Aug 23. [PubMed:23931703 ]
  5. Mung D, Li L: Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Feb 25;1001:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2017.11.019. Epub 2017 Nov 14. [PubMed:29291809 ]
  6. Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals (2009). Kurt J. Boudonck, Matthew W. Mitchell, Jacob Wulff and John A. Ryals. Characterization of the biochemical variability of bovine milk using metabolomics. Metabolomics (2009) 5:375?386. Metabolomics.
  7. A. Foroutan et al. (2019). A. Foroutan et al. The Chemical Composition of Commercial Cow's Milk (in preparation). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
  8. Fooddata+, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Involved in the inactivation of MAP kinases. Dephosphorylates ERK, JNK and p38 MAP-kinases (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DUSP14
Uniprot ID:
Q17QM8
Molecular weight:
22237.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Inactivates MAPK1 and MAPK3 which leads to dephosphorylation of heat shock factor protein 4 and a reduction in its DNA-binding activity.
Gene Name:
DUSP26
Uniprot ID:
Q17QJ3
Molecular weight:
23767.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Dual specificity phosphatase able to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues, with a preference for phosphotyrosine as a substrate.
Gene Name:
DUPD1
Uniprot ID:
P0C591
Molecular weight:
24984.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein phosphatase involved in the inactivation of MAP kinases. Has a specificity for the MAPK11/MAPK12/MAPK13/MAPK14 subfamily. It preferably dephosphorylates p38.
Gene Name:
DUSP10
Uniprot ID:
Q0IID7
Molecular weight:
52389.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Can dephosphorylate single and diphosphorylated synthetic MAPK peptides, with preference for the phosphotyrosine and diphosphorylated forms over phosphothreonine. In vitro, dephosphorylates p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP).
Gene Name:
DUSP18
Uniprot ID:
Q5BIP9
Molecular weight:
21028.0
General function:
Involved in heat shock protein binding
Specific function:
Recruits HSPA8/HSC70 to clathrin-coated vesicles and promotes uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (PubMed:15502813). Plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in neurons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DNAJC6
Uniprot ID:
Q27974
Molecular weight:
99512.0
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Functions both as protein phosphatase and as transcriptional coactivator for SIX1, and probably also for SIX2, SIX4 and SIX5. Tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates 'Tyr-142' of histone H2AX (H2AXY142ph) and promotes efficient DNA repair via the recruitment of DNA repair complexes containing MDC1. 'Tyr-142' phosphorylation of histone H2AX plays a central role in DNA repair and acts as a mark that distinguishes between apoptotic and repair responses to genotoxic stress. Its function as histone phosphatase may contribute to its function in transcription regulation during organogenesis. Plays an important role in hypaxial muscle development together with SIX1 and DACH2; in this it is functionally redundant with EYA1.
Gene Name:
EYA2
Uniprot ID:
Q58DB6
Molecular weight:
58807.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Inactivates MAP kinases. Has a specificity for the ERK family. Plays an important role in alleviating chronic postoperative pain. Necessary for the normal dephosphorylation of the long-lasting phosphorylated forms of spinal MAPK1/3 and MAP kinase p38 induced by peripheral surgery, which drives the resolution of acute postoperative allodynia. Also important for dephosphorylation of MAPK1/3 in local wound tissue, which further contributes to resolution of acute pain.
Gene Name:
DUSP6
Uniprot ID:
Q2KJ36
Molecular weight:
42307.0
General function:
Involved in protein-tyrosine sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-sulfation of tyrosine residues within acidic motifs of polypeptides, using 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as cosubstrate.
Gene Name:
TPST2
Uniprot ID:
Q3SYY2
Molecular weight:
41967.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P17289
Molecular weight:
55123.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-phenylalanine to L-tyrosine.
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
Q2KIH7
Molecular weight:
51727.0
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin.
Gene Name:
TTL
Uniprot ID:
P38584
Molecular weight:
43270.0
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the initial and rate limiting step in the cascade of reactions leading to melanin production from tyrosine. In addition to hydroxylating tyrosine to DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), also catalyzes the oxidation of DOPA to DOPA-quinone, and possibly the oxidation of DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
Q8MIU0
Molecular weight:
60304.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity for phenylalanine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
Q58CZ9
Molecular weight:
49691.0
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-Tyr kinases, through its SH2 domain, and acts as an adapter, mediating the association of the p110 catalytic unit to the plasma membrane. Necessary for the insulin-stimulated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in insulin-sensitive tissues. Plays an important role in signaling in response to FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, KITLG/SCF, KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Likewise, plays a role in ITGB2 signaling. Modulates the cellular response to ER stress by promoting nuclear translocation of XBP1 in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent manner during metabolic overloading in the liver and hence plays a role in glucose tolerance improvement (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIK3R1
Uniprot ID:
P23727
Molecular weight:
83497.0
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P27718
Molecular weight:
54294.0
Reactions
L-Tyrosine → Tyramine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Protein tyrosine phosphatase which stimulates progression from G1 into S phase during mitosis. Enhances cell proliferation, cell motility and invasive activity, and promotes cancer metastasis. May be involved in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting intracellular calcium mobilization in response to angiotensin II (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTP4A3
Uniprot ID:
A2VDT1
Molecular weight:
19511.0
General function:
Involved in phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulator activity
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), a kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-tyrosine kinases, through its SH2 domain, and acts as an adapter, mediating the association of the p110 catalytic unit to the plasma membrane. Indirectly regulates autophagy. Promotes nuclear translocation of XBP1 in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent manner during metabolic overloading in the liver and hence plays a role in glucose tolerance improvement (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIK3R2
Uniprot ID:
P23726
Molecular weight:
81060.0
General function:
Involved in SH3 domain binding
Specific function:
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor for CD47. Acts as docking protein and induces translocation of PTPN6, PTPN11 and other binding partners from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Supports adhesion of cerebellar neurons, neurite outgrowth and glial cell attachment. May play a key role in intracellular signaling during synaptogenesis and in synaptic function. Involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled cellular responses induced by cell adhesion, growth factors or insulin. Mediates negative regulation of phagocytosis, mast cell activation and dendritic cell activation. CD47 binding prevents maturation of immature dendritic cells and inhibits cytokine production by mature dendritic cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SIRPA
Uniprot ID:
O46631
Molecular weight:
55093.0
General function:
Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
Gene Name:
YARS1
Uniprot ID:
Q29465
Molecular weight:
59149.0
General function:
Involved in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Tyrosine protein phosphatase which functions as a dosage-dependent inducer of mitotic progression. Directly dephosphorylates CDK1 and stimulates its kinase activity. Also dephosphorylates CDK2 in complex with cyclin E, in vitro (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CDC25A
Uniprot ID:
A7MBD1
Molecular weight:
59142.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Extracellular matrix serine protease that plays a role in layering of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Regulates microtubule function in neurons and neuronal migration. Affects migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord, where it seems to act as a barrier to neuronal migration. Enzymatic activity is important for the modulation of cell adhesion. Binding to the extracellular domains of lipoprotein receptors VLDLR and LRP8/APOER2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of DAB1 and modulation of TAU phosphorylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RELN
Uniprot ID:
Q9N117
Molecular weight:
6069.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Possible cell adhesion receptor. It possesses an intrinsic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity (PTPase) and dephosphorylates EPHA2 regulating its activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PTPRF
Uniprot ID:
A7MBJ4
Molecular weight:
211382.0
General function:
Signal transduction mechanisms
Specific function:
Acts on tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, low-MW aryl phosphates and natural and synthetic acyl phosphates.
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
P11064
Molecular weight:
18055.0
General function:
Involved in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Lipid phosphatase which dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PI3P) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2). Has also been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine- and phosphoserine-containing peptides. Negatively regulates EGFR degradation through regulation of EGFR trafficking from the late endosome to the lysosome. Plays a role in vacuolar formation and morphology. Regulates desmin intermediate filament assembly and architecture. Plays a role in mitochondrial morphology and positioning. Required for skeletal muscle maintenance but not for myogenesis. In skeletal muscles, stabilizes MTMR12 protein levels.
Gene Name:
MTM1
Uniprot ID:
A6QLT4
Molecular weight:
70020.0
General function:
Replication, recombination and repair
Specific function:
Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-tyrosine kinases through its SH2 domain and regulates their kinase activity. During insulin stimulation, it also binds to IRS-1.
Gene Name:
PIK3R3
Uniprot ID:
O46404
Molecular weight:
54388.0
General function:
Involved in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Functions as a dosage-dependent inducer in mitotic control. Tyrosine protein phosphatase required for progression of the cell cycle. When phosphorylated, highly effective in activating G2 cells into prophase. Directly dephosphorylates CDK1 and activate its kinase activity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CDC25C
Uniprot ID:
A5D7P0
Molecular weight:
53794.0
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin-dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
A7MBE0
Molecular weight:
62502.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Contactins mediate cell surface interactions during nervous system development. Involved in the formation of paranodal axo-glial junctions in myelinated peripheral nerves and in the signaling between axons and myelinating glial cells via its association with CNTNAP1. Participates in oligodendrocytes generation by acting as a ligand of NOTCH1. Its association with NOTCH1 promotes NOTCH1 activation through the released notch intracellular domain (NICD) and subsequent translocation to the nucleus. Interaction with TNR induces a repulsion of neurons and an inhibition of neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CNTN1
Uniprot ID:
Q28106
Molecular weight:
113385.0
General function:
Involved in receptor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for neurturin. Mediates the NRTN-induced autophosphorylation and activation of the RET receptor. Also able to mediate GDNF signaling through the RET tyrosine kinase receptor (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GFRA2
Uniprot ID:
Q5E9X0
Molecular weight:
51659.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cell surface GPI-bound ligand for Eph receptors, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which are crucial for migration, repulsion and adhesion during neuronal, vascular and epithelial development. Binds promiscuously Eph receptors residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. Plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization. The recruitment of VAV2, VAV3 and PI3-kinase p85 subunit by phosphorylated EPHA2 is critical for EFNA1-induced RAC1 GTPase activation and vascular endothelial cell migration and assembly. Exerts anti-oncogenic effects in tumor cells through activation and down-regulation of EPHA2. Activates EPHA2 by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation which leads to its internalization and degradation. Acts as a negative regulator in the tumorigenesis of gliomas by down-regulating EPHA2 and FAK. Can evoke collapse of embryonic neuronal growth cone and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
EFNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZC64
Molecular weight:
23838.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Component of the receptor for type I interferons, including interferons alpha, IFNB1 and IFNW1 (PubMed:8318540). Functions in general as heterodimer with IFNAR2. Type I interferon binding activates the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including JAKs, TYK2, STAT proteins and the IFNR alpha- and beta-subunits themselves (By similarity). Can form an active IFNB1 receptor by itself and activate a signaling cascade that does not involve activation of the JAK-STAT pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IFNAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q04790
Molecular weight:
63819.0
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Required in cooperation with CD79B for initiation of the signal transduction cascade activated by binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor complex (BCR) which leads to internalization of the complex, trafficking to late endosomes and antigen presentation. Also required for BCR surface expression and for efficient differentiation of pro- and pre-B-cells. Stimulates SYK autophosphorylation and activation. Binds to BLNK, bringing BLNK into proximity with SYK and allowing SYK to phosphorylate BLNK. Also interacts with and increases activity of some Src-family tyrosine kinases. Represses BCR signaling during development of immature B-cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CD79A
Uniprot ID:
P40293
Molecular weight:
24630.0
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Trans-acting factor that binds to glucocorticoid modulatory elements (GME) present in the TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) promoter and increases sensitivity to low concentrations of glucocorticoids. Binds also to the transferrin receptor promoter (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GMEB1
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJ87
Molecular weight:
61321.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Associates with IFNAR1 to form the type I interferon receptor. Receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Involved in IFN-mediated STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 activation. Mediates signal transduction via its association with the TYR kinase, JAK1.
Gene Name:
IFNAR2
Uniprot ID:
Q95141
Molecular weight:
59584.0
General function:
Involved in receptor binding
Specific function:
Binds and activates TIE2 receptor by inducing its tyrosine phosphorylation. Implicated in endothelial developmental processes later and distinct from that of VEGF. Appears to play a crucial role in mediating reciprocal interactions between the endothelium and surrounding matrix and mesenchyme. Mediates blood vessel maturation/stability. It may play an important role in the heart early development (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ANGPT1
Uniprot ID:
O18920
Molecular weight:
57429.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Interacts with the basal transcription machinery by coordinating the formation of a multiprotein complex at the C-FOS promoter, and linking specific signal responsive activator complexes. Promotes the formation of stable high-order complexes of SRF and PHOX1 and interacts cooperatively with PHOX1 to promote serum-inducible transcription of a reporter gene deriven by the C-FOS serum response element (SRE). Acts as a coregulator for USF1 by binding independently two promoter elements, a pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) and an upstream E-box. Required for the formation of functional ARID3A DNA-binding complexes and for activation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain transcription upon B-lymphocyte activation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GTF2I
Uniprot ID:
A7MB80
Molecular weight:
110125.0
General function:
Involved in intracellular signaling cascade
Specific function:
SOCS family proteins form part of a classical negative feedback system that regulates cytokine signal transduction. SOCS3 is involved in negative regulation of cytokines that signal through the JAK/STAT pathway. Inhibits cytokine signal transduction by binding to tyrosine kinase receptors including gp130, LIF, erythropoietin, insulin and leptin receptors. Inhibits JAK2 kinase activity. Suppresses fetal liver erythropoiesis. Regulates onset and maintenance of allergic responses mediated by T-helper type 2 cells. Regulates IL-6 signaling in vivo. Probable substrate recognition component of a SCF-like ECS (Elongin BC-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex which mediates the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Seems to recognize IL6ST (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SOCS3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BEG9
Molecular weight:
25134.0
General function:
Involved in scavenger receptor activity
Specific function:
Involved in clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. May play a role in the uptake and recycling of iron, via endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin and subsequent breakdown of heme. Binds hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes in a calcium-dependent and pH-dependent manner. Induces a cascade of intracellular signals that involves tyrosine kinase-dependent calcium mobilization, inositol triphosphate production and secretion of IL6 and CSF1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CD163
Uniprot ID:
P85521
Molecular weight:
121806.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Adapter protein which non-covalently associates with activating receptors found on the surface of a variety of immune cells to mediate signaling and cell activation following ligand binding by the receptors (By similarity). TYROBP is tyrosine-phosphorylated in the ITAM domain following ligand binding by the associated receptors which leads to activation of additional tyrosine kinases and subsequent cell activation (By similarity). Also has an inhibitory role in some cells (By similarity). Non-covalently associates with activating receptors of the CD300 family to mediate cell activation (By similarity). Also mediates cell activation through association with activating receptors of the CD200R family (By similarity). Required for neutrophil activation mediated by integrin (By similarity). Required for the activation of myeloid cells mediated by the CLEC5A/MDL1 receptor (By similarity). Associates with natural killer (NK) cell receptors such as the KLRD1/KLRC2 heterodimer to mediate NK cell activation (By similarity). Associates with TREM1 to mediate activation of neutrophils and monocytes (By similarity). Associates with TREM2 on monocyte-derived dendritic cells to mediate up-regulation of chemokine receptor CCR7 and dendritic cell maturation and survival (By similarity). Association with TREM2 mediates cytokine-induced formation of multinucleated giant cells which are formed by the fusion of macrophages (By similarity). Stabilizes the TREM2 C-terminal fragment (TREM2-CTF) produced by TREM2 ectodomain shedding which suppresses the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (By similarity). In microglia, required with TREM2 for phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons (By similarity). Required with ITGAM/CD11B in microglia to control production of microglial superoxide ions which promote the neuronal apoptosis that occurs during brain development (By similarity). Promotes proinflammatory responses in microglia following nerve injury which accelerates degeneration of injured neurons (By similarity). Positively regulates the expression of the IRAK3/IRAK-M kinase and IL10 production by liver dendritic cells and inhibits their T cell allosimulatory ability (By similarity). Negatively regulates B cell proliferation (By similarity). Required for CSF1-mediated osteoclast cytoskeletal organization (By similarity). Positively regulates multinucleation during osteoclast development (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TYROBP
Uniprot ID:
Q95J79
Molecular weight:
11836.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
May act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. Interacts directly with G-protein alpha subunits and can functionally regulate their activity. Acts as an accessory protein in conjunction with CAV1 in targeting to lipid rafts and driving caveolae formation. Positive regulator of cellular mitogenesis of the MAPK signaling pathway. Required for the insulin-stimulated nuclear translocation and activation of MAPK1 and STAT3, and the subsequent regulation of cell cycle progression (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CAV2
Uniprot ID:
Q66WT7
Molecular weight:
18160.0
General function:
Involved in intracellular signaling cascade
Specific function:
SOCS family proteins form part of a classical negative feedback system that regulates cytokine signal transduction. CIS is involved in the negative regulation of cytokines that signal through the JAK-STAT5 pathway such as erythropoietin, prolactin and interleukin 3 (IL3) receptor. Inhibits STAT5 trans-activation by suppressing its tyrosine phosphorylation (By similarity). May be a substrate recognition component of a SCF-like ECS (Elongin BC-CUL2/5-SOCS-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex which mediates the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CISH
Uniprot ID:
Q2HJ53
Molecular weight:
28397.0
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol binding
Specific function:
Couples tyrosine kinase signals with the activation of the Rho/Rac GTPases, thus leading to cell differentiation and/or proliferation.
Gene Name:
VAV1
Uniprot ID:
Q08DN7
Molecular weight:
98243.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IL4I1
Uniprot ID:
F1N191
Molecular weight:
64479.0
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails